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 Tallow TagsBarley
GHGenius 2.0
GHGenius 2.5
GHGenius 2.6
Marine Oil
Palm Oil
Sugar Cane
Tall Oil
Used Cooking Oil
Used Oil
Wheat Straw
Yellow Grease
 2010 Biofuel Analysis
 Prepared December 2010
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In 2006, GHGenius was used to analyze the GHG emissions from the biodiesel and fuel ethanol pathways of interest in Canada. That project also investigated the sensitivity of the emissions to some of the parameters than could vary from project to project. That report has been used by a number of government departments, as they study the development of the industry in Canada. It is also one of the more popular reports on the GHGenius website.

Our knowledge of the performance of the biofuels industry in Canada has improved significantly in the four years since that work was done. In addition, GHGenius has been updated with better data on the biofuel production process and feedstock production systems. An updated report is therefore warranted, given the continued interest in the subject and the updated modelling data. The report will also serve as an updated documentation resource for these pathways in the model.

The biofuel pathways that have been analyzed in this report include five ethanol pathways, corn, wheat, barley and sugar cane based systems and a cellulosic ethanol system based on wheat straw feedstock. Six biodiesel feedstocks have been considered, canola, soybeans, tallow, used cooking oil, palm oil and jatropha. Four feedstocks have been considered for hydrotreated oils, palm, canola, tallow, and soybean oil.

For the sensitivity analysis, the focus has been on the issues that can vary from plant to plant, such as co-product drying, the use of combined heat and power, and the energy source for the thermal energy. In addition, issues that still have some uncertainty, such as changes in soil carbon are evaluated.

Tags: Barley - Biodiesel - Canola - Corn - Ethanol - HRD - Jatropha - Palm Oil - Soybeans - Sugar Cane - Tallow - Used Cooking Oil - Wheat - Wheat Straw
 BC Biodiesel Feedstock Study
 Prepared March 2006
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The Federal Government has included a production goal of 500 million litres of biodiesel by 2010 in its Climate Change Action plan. They have also established an $11.9 million fund that will support research and provide incentives for industrial-scale biodiesel pilot plants, and support demonstrations of its effectiveness to encourage broader use of biodiesel.

One key aspect of meeting the 500 million litre target is the identification of sufficient feedstock to convert into biodiesel. Feedstock availability is quite diverse across Canada with different regions not only producing different feedstocks but also having varying supply and demand balances. The objective of this work is to investigate these feedstock issues for the Province of British Columbia.

The specific goals of this work are therefore:
- First, to identify total volumes and types of potential British Columbia feedstock available annually to produce biodiesel (methyl ester), including identifying potential of feedstock imports and exports.
- Secondly, to identify whether British Columbia has sufficient (volume, type, availability, price) domestic biodiesel feedstock to supply a viable domestic biodiesel industry in the short and long-term, and to identify how feedstock imports and exports impact the industry.
- Finally, to evaluate other issues that might arise with some of the specific feedstocks.

Six classes of biodiesel feedstocks have been considered in this report. In five of the six cases the product is currently being sold for some application. Only in the case of trucked liquid wastes (brown grease) is the feedstock being disposed of. These non-marketed volumes are very limited. In many cases there are also imports and exports of the feedstocks.

Tags: Biodiesel - Canola - Marine Oil - Tall Oil - Tallow - Yellow Grease
 Biofuel Sensitivity Analysis
 Prepared August 2006
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The purpose of this work was to identify key factors that influence the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of current ethanol and biodiesel production pathways. This information can then be used by policy makers, fuel producers, distributors, retailers and consumers to assist them in making decisions that positively impact the lifecycle GHG performance of the renewable fuels sector.

For the transportation sector there are generally three ways that GHG emissions can be reduced; improve energy efficiency at all stages of the life cycle, use lower carbon intensity fuel sources, or change transportation modes. Combinations of the three approaches are of course also possible.

Renewable fuel producers have some control over the first two categories but they will be looking to maximize the return on investment when they design and build biofuel facilities and not necessarily minimizing GHG emissions. This may lead to the facilities being energy efficient but the types of energy that are used in the facilities may not be optimized.

For this work we are interested in, among other possibilities, the emissions impact that could arise from different farming practices. These practices could result in soil carbon changes and perhaps in changes in above ground biomass. The default values for modelling have therefore been set so that in the base case there is no change in soil carbon, no change in above ground biomass arising from increased crop yields, and no biomass growth resulting from nitrogen run-off lost offsite.

Tags: Biodiesel - Canola - Corn - Ethanol - Lignocellulosic - Palm - Soybeans - Sugar Cane - SuperCetane - Tallow - Wheat - Yellow Grease
 Biodiesel GHG Emissions Update
 Prepared January 2005
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The production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, tallow and yellow grease was added to GHGenius in 2002. In 2004 the production and conversion of marine oils to biodiesel was added to the model. Since 2002, there has been growing interest in the production of biodiesel in Canada. The National Research Council has recently completed a lifecycle analysis of biodiesel and that effort produced additional data that is applicable to biodiesel production. A number of new European LCA reports are now available and these have additional data that can be incorporated into the analysis. There have been a number of comments and suggestions made with respect to the original 2002 report so it is appropriate to revisit the input data for these pathways in GHGenius. Additional information has also recently become available on fertilizer production in Canada so that work has also been reviewed and incorporated into the model.

The original work in 2002 included an assessment of ethanol-diesel blends. Those fuels are not included in this work although a review of the emissions from ethanol production and ethanol blends is planned for the near future.
The goal of this work is to:
· Expand the biodiesel pathways in the model so that tallow and yellow grease pathways can be analyzed at the same time rather than have them share a pathway where the user must select which to model,
· Add the intermediate production of the lipid feedstock to the upstream results on Sheet K,
· Regionalize the production of fertilizer in the model,
· Review and update the data that is used in the biodiesel production pathways,
· Review and discuss the role of the biodiesel co-products in the LCA, and to
· Use the model to perform some sensitivity analysis on the inputs in the biodiesel pathways so that a better understanding of biodiesel’s benefits can be achieved.

GHGenius has been expanded to include five biodiesel pathways and all five are available for each model run. In addition, the upstream emissions are available for the five oils used as biodiesel feedstocks.

Tags: Biodiesel - Canola - Fertilizer - GHGenius 2.6 - Marine Oil - Soybeans - Tallow - Yellow Grease
 Economic, Financial, Policy Analysis Biodiesel
 Prepared November 2004
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The Federal Government has included a production goal of 500 million litres of biodiesel by 2010 in its Climate Change Action plan. They have also established an $11.9 million fund that will support research and provide incentives for industrial-scale biodiesel pilot plants, and support demonstrations of its effectiveness to encourage broader use of biodiesel.

There has been little economic and financial analysis of biodiesel within a Canadian context. The few published and unpublished studies carried-out so far for the public sectors have dealt mostly with potential socio-economic impacts and have attracted little interest from the investment community due to their lack of focus on profitability, both short and long term. Policy and decision makers, financial institutions, and other economic players need the more detailed, formal analysis framework in order to make investment decisions regarding the development of these fuels.

The primary objective of this study is to assess the current and future economics of bio-diesel plants in Canada and to develop estimates of demand, supply, and prices (costs and selling) of this fuel. The results are then used to develop a template-like analytical tool for various models of ownership structure, to help assess the financial performance of various types of biodiesel (regional and feedstock specific) plants across Canada.

The work was carried out in Phases and stages. This report covers Phase 1, for biodiesel. A similar report has been prepared for ethanol.

The specific objectives of Phase 1, Stage 1 were to:
· Review literature on economic and financial performance of biodiesel plants.
· Identify successful plants and reasons for success.
· Quantify feedstock resources and production costs.
· Develop a comprehensive financial model.
· Develop a supply curve.

The objectives of Phase 1, Stage 2 were to:
· Identification of market barriers.
· Evaluate policy tools including.
o Government capital investment
o Favourable tax treatment
o Infrastructure investment
o R&D funding
o Renewable content mandates
o Emission taxes
· Examine the potential for regionalization of tools.
· Quantification of levels of support required.
· Investigate other approaches to market development.

Phase 1, Stage 3 of the work focuses on the international aspects of a developing biodiesel industry and considers the threats and opportunities that international trade in biofuels presents. The specific tasks of this stage include:
· Identification of the level of international trade.
· Production cost comparison with the potential exporters of biodiesel.
· Analysis of the import alternatives that biodiesel users in Canada would face.
· Evaluate the impacts that biodiesel imports might face and identify measures that might mitigate the impacts.
· Evaluate the impact of trade agreements on enabling or disabling Canadian industry competitiveness.

The second phase of the work will have some analysis related to GHG emissions.

Tags: Biodiesel - Canola - Economic - Marine Oil - Soybeans - Tallow - Yellow Grease
 NRCan SuperCetane and Used Oil Cycles
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in March 2004
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The goal of this work was to add two new pathways to GHGenius:
  • Canola Oil or tallow to “SuperCetane”, and
  • Used motor oil to diesel fuel, the ROBYS™ process.

Both of these processes have been developed by Natural Resources Canada and are in the process of being commercialized.
The new pathways have been fully integrated into GHGenius and all of the existing functionality of the model has been retained.
The CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC), Natural Resources Canada, has developed a novel, patented technology that can convert vegetable oils, waste greases, animal tallow and other feedstocks containing triglycerides and fatty acids into a high cetane, low sulphur diesel fuel blending stock called SuperCetane. This process can transform fats by hydrotreating them to produce paraffins.
The "ROBYS™ Process" purifies and stabilizes reclaimed and refined gas oils. ROBYS™ is designed as an add-on unit to used oil recycling and petroleum refining operations. The process was developed by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) and is licensed to Par Excellence Developments (PED) of Sudbury, Ontario for worldwide application. In the course of being recycled, used oils undergo a thermal cracking process to produce gas oil. ROBYS™ then effectively stabilizes and purifies the gas oil.
Used oil has been added to GHGenius as a feedstock. The collection parameters for used oil can be set by the user on the Input Sheet in terms of the modes of transportation employed and the distances involved.

Tags: Canola - GHGenius 2.5 - SuperCetane - Tallow - Used Oil
 Biodiesel and Ethanol Diesel Blends
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in September 2002
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This report accomplished the following objectives:
  • Determined the lifecycle energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions for biodiesel manufactured from waste animal fats, soyoil and Canola oil.
  • Determined the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of using biodiesel blends of 2%, 20% and 100% compared to conventional diesel fuel
  • Determined the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of using ethanol diesel blends of 7% and 15% compared to conventional diesel fuel.
  • Confirmed the appropriate treatment of N2O emissions from agricultural residues in the latest version of GHGenius.
  • Estimated the production costs of biodiesel from the various feedstocks studied.
  • Provided an overview of the policy issues raised by the blending of biodiesel or ethanol diesel blends. These include taxation issues, impact on exhaust emissions, regulatory issues with respect to safety and standards, engine warranty issues and distribution and marketing issues.

Tags: Biodiesel - Canola - Ethanol - Fertilizer - GHGenius 2.0 - Soybeans - Tallow - Yellow Grease
(S&T)2 Consultants Inc. 2004 Important Notices