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 Refining TagsBiodiesel
Crude Oil
Exhaust Emissions
Fischer Tropsch
GHGenius 2.5
GHGenius 3.20
GHGenius 3.3
GHGenius 3.8
Mixed Alcohols
Natural Gas
 Oil Refining Update
 April 2011
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The GHG emissions related to the production and use of petroleum fuels are very important, as these fuels are used in most fuel production pathways and, for all alternative fuels, gasoline or diesel fuel represents the reference fuel to which the alternative fuel is compared.

This GHGenius update has involved an in depth review of the emissions associated with oil refining and oil production in Canada. This included some structural changes to the model and the inclusion of more real world data and fewer assumptions. The oil refining section of the model now has time series of data for energy consumption in Canadian oil refineries, a revised and improved method for calculating the allocation of the emissions between products, and increased flexibility for modelling a specific refinery. It also has revised factors for estimating the emissions when the crude oil properties are changed.

The model results, in most cases, are aligned with the reported GHG emissions from refineries. The CAC emission factors for CO, SOx and NOx have also been adjusted to better match the reported emissions. The previous factors were based on early sector wide emissions and, now that these emissions are reported annually, clearer trends have emerged.

This new version of GHGenius provides the capacity for refiners to model individual refineries relatively easily. The cells where users could input their own data are clearly distinguished and it is no longer necessary to override any of the data or calculations in GHGenius to model a specific refinery. Most of the other LCA models don’t have this capability.

The model also allows refiners to change the refined products slate when they change the crude oil charged. Combined with the new allocation system, this will calculate any benefits that different crude oils may provide in terms of more of the high intensity products produced at the expense of the low value, low allocation, heavy products.

Tags: Crude Oil - GHGenius 3.20 - Refining
 Oil Production Update
 April 2011
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As more focus is placed on different industrial processes, more data on those systems becomes available. The crude oil systems in GHGenius have been updated several times but the most recent update was two years ago and more data is now available. It was therefore appropriate to undertake a thorough review and update of the crude oil pathways in GHGenius. The scope of this work is discussed below.

1. International Crude Oil Supply to Canada
About 50% of the crude oil that is refined in Canada is imported. The quantity of crude oil and its destination is reported by Statistics Canada and a time series of data has been produced for each of the regions in the model from 1985 to the present time. This data has been added to the model (sheet Z) and used as the basis for future projections.

2. Energy Requirements International Crude Production
The energy required to produce international crude oils has been essentially static in GHGenius (sheet S). A time series of data is produced by the International Oil and Gas Producers Association. It covers about one third of the world’s crude oil production. Data is available from 2001 to 2009. This data has been analyzed to establish some trends for the model.

3. Canadian Crude Oil Production Trends
GHGenius does not currently have total crude oil production data for Canada. The model has focussed on the crude oils that are refined in Canada. Since there is some interest in the emissions impact of crude oils that are exported from Canada this data has been added to the model.

4. Energy Requirements for Canadian Crude Oils
The energy requirements for producing conventional Canadian crude oil have been reported by CAPP and that data has been used in GHGenius. It has been reviewed and newer sources of information have been sought.

A time series of data on mineable oil sands statistics has been found that is produced by Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). It includes complete mass and energy balance information for all operating mineable projects. The data has been reviewed and incorporated into the model.

Data on in-situ oil production is starting to be reported by ERCB and the data for 2009 and 2010 has been used for the model.

Another stage in the lifecycle has been added to the model to differentiate the emissions from bitumen production and bitumen upgrading. This has been done on sheet I, the Energy Balance sheet, and the Upstream Emission sheets (HHV and LHV).

5. Venting and Flaring Emissions Canadian Crude Oils
The venting and flaring data for Canadian crude oil production was updated in 2004. At that time there had been a concerted effort by the industry to reduce these emissions and some success was evident from the data. A projection of future improvements was made based on the trends. More recent data provided by Alberta Energy suggests that the annual improvements ceased about 2006, so this issue has been re-evaluated in the model.

6. Carbon Capture and Storage
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one GHG emission reduction strategy that is potentially applicable to emission sources. Bitumen upgrading and synthetic oil production are two potential applications of this technology. The carbon capture and storage technology can also be applied in the refineries and GHGenius has had the capacity to model CCS for these sectors for some time. This function in the model is reviewed, updated, and documented.

7. Co-generation of Power and Steam
Some oil sands upgraders produce their own power and export some back to the grid. This can be handled in GHGenius through the use of a negative consumption of electricity but this does not provide any flexibility in how it is modelled. In other systems that produce electricity as a co-product the model provides full flexibility, this allows the modeller to choose what power source is being displaced; this approach has been extended to upgrader operations.

8. Refinery Energy Use
The energy use data for refineries in GHGenius had been based on 2002 data and significant changes in the industry have taken place since then, such as the introduction of low sulphur gasoline and ultra low sulphur diesel fuel. This work has tried to develop consistent regional data sets, and time series of data, which can be used in the GHGenius model.

A literature review has been undertaken on changes in refining energy requirements with changes in crude density and sulphur content and changes in the way that the model deals with these issues has been made.

9. Refinery Energy Use Allocation
The other important parameter related to refineries is the allocation of emissions between products. The current allocation process has been reviewed and significant changes have been made to make the process more functional.

Tags: Crude Oil - GHGenius 3.20 - Refining
 US Update
 April 2011
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The report covers work on the regionalization of the US fuel production pathways and the updating of the basic data that covers US electric power production, US natural gas production and flows, US crude oil production and flows, and the US petroleum refining sector. The revised model resulting from this work has more functionality for modelling various scenarios in the US and more up to date data on the traditional US energy sector.

This report has been prepared to document the changes that have been made to GHGenius in terms of updating US data and the regionalization of some of that data. The version of the model that accompanies this report is GHGenius 3.20.

This work added US regional buttons to the Input sheet, these install regional values much like the Canadian regional and Provincial buttons. This makes it much easier to run US regional scenarios.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - GHGenius 3.20 - Refining
 2007 Crude Oil GHGenius Update Report
 Prepared April 2007
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The energy requirements for the production of Canadian crude oil have been updated. The energy data for the various classes of crude oil has been extracted from the NRCan report, “Canada’s Energy Outlook: The Reference Case 2006”. and incorporated into the data on sheet S in the model.

Other sources of information were sought to validate the Outlook data. In some cases these other sources were used where the data appeared to be more complete or could be corroborated. This has provided a better profile of the energy requirements for oil production in Canada.

The type of information included for all of the different types of crude oil has been expanded to include the density and the sulphur content. This way it is now possible to determine the actual oil density and sulphur content of the oil that is going into the refinery rather than using the essentially static values that were previously in the model.

Tags: Crude Oil - GHGenius 3.8 - Natural Gas - Refining
 GHGenius Sequestration Report
 Prepared April 2006
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The report covers work on the expansion of pathways and expanding the results from existing pathways. This work involved the following tasks and deliverables.

1. The potential to include carbon dioxide sequestration to a number of feedstock and fuel production pathways has been added to the model. There was previously a switch in GHGenius to account for carbon sequestration in thermal power generation but this was a very simply approach to the issue and it underestimated the emissions in the upstream portion of power generation. There are a number of other places where sequestration might be employed. These include gasification plants, oil sands upgraders, oil refineries, methanol, and ethanol plants. The capability of adding a sequestration step to all of these facilities has been added to GHGenius and the current switch for electric power plants has been removed to calculate the impact of carbon storage more robustly for power plants.

2. The capability of using biodiesel in the light duty diesel and light duty hybrid diesel vehicles has been added to the model. These pathways have also been added to the LDV Summary sheet and the Light Duty Cost effectiveness output sheets. This involved only the combination of existing fuel and vehicle pathways in the model.

3. The tables 51c and 51e on sheet I have been expanded to include all of the pathways in the model. This included the pathways that are primarily electric in nature. It should be noted that in GHGenius, electric power is treated as a primary energy source where a kWh of power is converted to 3,600 kJ of energy. Some other models consider electric power a secondary source of energy and account for the energy of one kWh based on the energy that went in to the power plant so there may be some differences in the results shown in GHGenius compared to some other models. We may want to consider changing this in the future.

4. For some types of oil production there are surface disturbances that will result in a loss of biomass and soil carbon. The emissions from these disturbances are included in the coal mining pathway but not in the oil sands pathways. The emissions from this source for oil production pathways have been added to the model where appropriate.

GHGenius has been modified to allow the incorporation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) into many of the fuel and energy pathways in the model. This has been accomplished in a manner that provides a significant amount of flexibility for the user. There is still a considerable amount of uncertainty with respect to the actual performance of CCS systems in real world applications. With some large projects now being proposed some real data may become available in a few years that can be used to further refine the values used in GHGenius.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - Ethanol - Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 3.3 - Hydrogen - Methanol - Mixed Alcohols - Refining - Sequestration
 Construction Emissions
 Prepared March 2006
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Most analyses of energy production pathways do not include any emissions attributable to the construction of the energy production facilities themselves. This simplification of the production pathway is allowed under ISO 14000 guidelines if the emissions are not material. Many researchers make this claim for the construction and decommissioning stage but there are other analysts who often challenge this perspective. These analysts may use the omission of construction emissions as a reason not to trust a comparison between fuel pathways.

This report documents a literature search of previous work on the emissions associated with the construction of electric power facilities (nuclear, hydro, thermal, and wind), oil refineries, ethanol production plants and other production facilities. The identified literature has been assessed on a common basis and conclusions reached about the GHG emissions from the construction phase of a project. The literature search has identified anther approach to quantifying the emissions from the construction phase of projects, the use of economic input-output data which can be used when the quantification of materials and energy inputs are not available to achieve a reasonable estimate of emissions.

Tags: Biodiesel - Electricity - Ethanol - Hydrogen - Materials - Refining
 Update of GHGenius
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in March 2004
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As part of this work, there have been several changes to the model. The version of the model that accompanies this report is GHGenius 2.5. A number of revisions and updates to the model were undertaken. The revisions generally have either improved the quality of Canadian data in the model or added functionality that makes the model more powerful for the user. In addition, two new cycles, based on processes developed by NRCan have been added to the model. These new cycles are the subject of a separate report. The objectives of the model updates were to:
  • Allow selection of ethanol cellulosic feedstock from the input sheet. Ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks could be produced from a variety of feedstocks including wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, and hay.
  • Improve the quality and functionality of the emissions from crude oil production and refining in Canada. The model has been modified to use four different crude oil types, conventional, heavy, bitumen and synthetic.
  • Harmonize the methodology for the production of hydrogen from electrolysis with other methods.
  • Review and update the Canadian electricity mix.
  • Update the emissions of criteria air contaminants from heavy-duty diesel engines on Sheet H in light of the new emission standards being phased in this decade.
  • The latest LEM model by Dr. Mark Delucchi made many changes to sheet L that calculates emissions associated with materials. The documentation that describes the changes to determine the best data to use for GHGenius with particular attention to the data for Canada has been reviewed and the appropriate changes have been made to GHGenius.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - Ethanol - Exhaust Emissions - GHGenius 2.5 - Lignocellulosic - Refining
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