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· Ethanol via biochemical processes using agricultural residues.
· Ethanol via thermochemical process using woody biomass.
· Gasoline via thermochemical process using woody biomass.
· FT Distillate via thermochemical process using woody biomass.
· Gasoline and Diesel fuel via pyrolysis.
Additional information has been found for the wood to DME process and this information is used to update this pathway in GHGenius. All of these pathways are already in GHGenius, having been added over the years. This work updates the default values in the GHGenius model and uses the updated data to model and report on the energy balances and GHG emissions of the pathways. This includes undertaking sensitivity analysis on the important variables.
In GHGenius there are multiple sub-pathways for some of these fuel systems, for example there are four agricultural feedstocks and a wood feedstock for the biochemical route and the pyrolysis pathway has woody biomass feedstock and agricultural residues. We have developed consistent inputs for all of these sub-pathways based on the NREL data, whereas they only provide data for one feedstock.
There are process developers that have hybrid systems, those that use both biochemical and thermochemical process to convert biomass to transportation fuels. These can also be modelled in GHGenius by adapting one of the existing pathways. Two examples of this are presented, but the inputs required for these systems are not included as default values in the model.
The results are presented for Canada for the year 2012 using the IPCC 2007 GWPs, unless otherwise stated. The version of GHGenius that accompanies this report is version 4.02. This version also has some updates to the electric and fuel cell vehicle pathways, which are described in a separate report. The GHGenius manuals have also been updated with the information used in this report.
Tags: DME - Ethanol - Feedstock - Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 4.02 - PyrolysisOils - Wheat Straw - Wood
The scope of this work included;
1. Pyrolysis oil production from wood or agricultural cellulosic feedstocks. Both of these feedstock families were already included in GHGenius. There are three wood options: wood waste, short rotation forestry, and harvested wood from natural forests. There are four agricultural cellulosic feedstocks in the model: wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, and hay. The model has been expanded so that pyrolysis oil can be made from any of these feedstocks. The emissions from the production of these bio-oils have been added to the Upstream Results sheet.
2. The produced pyrolysis oil could be used in external combustion devices such as heaters and boilers (sheet AD and sheet N). Sheet J has also been expanded so that the emissions from the production of electricity in a turbine system can be modelled.
3. A pathway that refines the pyrolysis oils to blending stock for gasoline and diesel fuel has also been added to the model.
All of the existing functionality, e.g. sensitivity solver, Monte Carlo tool, etc, in GHGenius has been maintained. The version of GHGenius that accompanies this report is GHGenius version 3.20.
Tags: Ag Residues - GHGenius 3.20 - PyrolysisOils - Wood