In order to assist with the navigation of the reports, each of the reports on this page has had the keywords tagged. All of the tags used are on the left. Clicking on a tag will then show all of the reports that have that keyword. All of the tags that are used with that keyword are then shown listed above the reports.
Used Cooking Oil
Another biofuel feedstock that is starting to be produced in Canada and is being used in the United States is corn oil extracted from the stillage of ethanol plants. This product is already a co-product of the ethanol production process, so it was relatively straightforward to add it as a feedstock for biodiesel and HRD production in the model.
The Canola Council of Canada and Agriculture and AgriFood Canada (AAFC) undertook a survey of 1000 canola producers in 2011. This survey has resulted in a wealth of information concerning fertilizer application rates, fuel usage, and pesticide application rates. This data was used to develop GHG emission data for canola production in Canada at the eco-zone level. GHGenius has been updated with this data.
AAFC also made available information on soil carbon changes by soil zone and province for the work for the Canola Council. The same information is available for all provinces with agricultural area. The US national GHG inventory reports have also been reviewed to extract the soil carbon changes due to land management change in the US. This work updated both the US and Canadian soil carbon data in the model.
The work also updated some of the N2O emission calculations with several pieces of new data. AAFC supplied the leaching emission factor by province, which was used in the model to develop regional values. There is also an AAFC paper on the ratios of grain to biomass and the nitrogen contents of above and below biomass. This data was reviewed and compared to the IPCC recommended values. The data in the model for different feedstocks comes from several sources so it would be advantageous to use one data source for most feedstocks.
The chemicals used in the biodiesel manufacturing process are based on an NBB survey undertaken in 2009, but it is believed that this data was misinterpreted when it was first produced and it reports the usage of diluted solutions for catalyst and hydrochloric acid and not the actual usage of those chemicals. This has been corrected in this version of the model.
Finally, we have reviewed the data available from Statistics Canada and AAFC on manure application rates in Canada. It would appear that there is information available that would allow a more precise estimate of manure use for fertilizer in Canada.
Tags: Canola - Corn Oil - GHGenius 4.03 - Land Use - Palm Oil
Our knowledge of the performance of the biofuels industry in Canada has improved significantly in the four years since that work was done. In addition, GHGenius has been updated with better data on the biofuel production process and feedstock production systems. An updated report is therefore warranted, given the continued interest in the subject and the updated modelling data. The report will also serve as an updated documentation resource for these pathways in the model.
The biofuel pathways that have been analyzed in this report include five ethanol pathways, corn, wheat, barley and sugar cane based systems and a cellulosic ethanol system based on wheat straw feedstock. Six biodiesel feedstocks have been considered, canola, soybeans, tallow, used cooking oil, palm oil and jatropha. Four feedstocks have been considered for hydrotreated oils, palm, canola, tallow, and soybean oil.
For the sensitivity analysis, the focus has been on the issues that can vary from plant to plant, such as co-product drying, the use of combined heat and power, and the energy source for the thermal energy. In addition, issues that still have some uncertainty, such as changes in soil carbon are evaluated.
Tags: Barley - Biodiesel - Canola - Corn - Ethanol - HRD - Jatropha - Palm Oil - Soybeans - Sugar Cane - Tallow - Used Cooking Oil - Wheat - Wheat Straw