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For the transportation sector there are generally three ways that GHG emissions can be reduced; improve energy efficiency at all stages of the life cycle, use lower carbon intensity fuel sources, or change transportation modes. Combinations of the three approaches are of course also possible.
Renewable fuel producers have some control over the first two categories but they will be looking to maximize the return on investment when they design and build biofuel facilities and not necessarily minimizing GHG emissions. This may lead to the facilities being energy efficient but the types of energy that are used in the facilities may not be optimized.
For this work we are interested in, among other possibilities, the emissions impact that could arise from different farming practices. These practices could result in soil carbon changes and perhaps in changes in above ground biomass. The default values for modelling have therefore been set so that in the base case there is no change in soil carbon, no change in above ground biomass arising from increased crop yields, and no biomass growth resulting from nitrogen run-off lost offsite.
Tags: Biodiesel - Canola - Corn - Ethanol - Lignocellulosic - Palm - Soybeans - Sugar Cane - SuperCetane - Tallow - Wheat - Yellow Grease
Prepared May 2006
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Palm oil is the lowest cost vegetable oil feedstock produced in the world today. It is increasingly being considered as a feedstock for biodiesel production, not only in the regions of the world where it is produced but also in Europe and North America. The environmental benefits of palm oil are also somewhat controversial with claims regarding cultivation practices being both pro and con palm oil as a sustainable feedstock source.
The production of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel has been added to the model. The biodiesel can be used as a neat fuel and in blends in heavy-duty vehicles and in blends in light duty vehicles. All of the pathways have been added to all of the results sheets in the model including the summary sheets and the cost sheets. Palm oil biodiesel can now be compared to biodiesel produced from other oil sources within the same model.
Tags: Biodiesel - Coal - Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 3.4 - Palm