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Fuel Cell Vehicles
The functioning of the EV section of the model had been reviewed and, while it was functioning correctly, there were a number of key input values and assumptions that have a large influence on the model results. Many of these date back to the original LEM model. With the new electric vehicles on the market, it has been possible to update many of these parameters and algorithms with values that are representative of the current EV models. Two of the key issues investigated were the factors for changes in vehicle weight as a function of battery weight, and the changing efficiency of the vehicle as total weight changes.
Data has been found for the relative performance of EV vehicles for the new vehicles that have been tested by the US EPA. Other issues investigated include the vehicle range, the charging efficiency, the battery efficiency, battery specific energy, battery cycle life, and depth of discharge. The model has maximum and minimum default values for all of the parameters and they have been evaluated to ensure that they are realistic.
The plug-in electric vehicle pathway was added to GHGenius in 2006. There is much more known about these vehicles now that some are commercially available. The latest information on these systems has been reviewed to determine if any changes are required to the structure of GHGenius to better model these vehicles.
Since electricity is the focus of this work, the electric power forecasts in the model have been updated from the 2009 to 2011 NEB forecast. At the same time, the structure of the model has been changed from new forecast values every five years to a value for every year of the forecast period.
There is finally some public information on the performance of FCV that has been reviewed and used to improve the model. The B Class Mercedes is available in both gasoline and FCV variations and test data is available on the Honda Clarity FCV, although there isnít an exact match gasoline vehicle.
Tags: Electric Vehicles - Electricity - Fuel Cell Vehicles - GHGenius 4.02 - PHEV
1. A new table has been added to sheet I that shows the fossil energy consumption per kilometre driven. This augments the existing Table 51c that shows the total energy consumed per kilometre driven.
2. New information on the energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada has recently become available. This information has been reviewed, and the formulas on sheet G have been changed to be consistent with this new data.
3. There is increased interest in the concept of plug in hybrid vehicles. These vehicles have a larger battery pack than existing hybrid vehicles and must be plugged in to maximize the battery charge. The vehicles operate with some fraction of the energy consumed provided by the power from the grid rather than having all of the power provided by the gasoline engine. These vehicles can operate as a combination of a battery powered electric vehicle and a gasoline vehicle. This pathway has been added to the results sheets using a user specified fraction of distance provided by the grid power and battery size.
4. There has also been interest in modelling gasoline powered heavy-duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy-duty vehicles. These vehicles may also be medium duty vehicles so the classes of vehicles modelled have been expanded by including vehicle weight as part of the user inputs. This will allow the different weight classes to exhibit different efficiencies. The US EPA guidance on this issue has been followed.
5. The production of ethanol from sugar cane has been added to the model. While the production of ethanol from sugar cane is not likely possible in Canada, there has been some sugar cane ethanol imported into Canada and interest in this pathway remains high in Canada. Some information on the production process is available from Brazilian sources and this information has been reviewed to extract the data required for adding this pathway to GHGenius.
6. The energy consumed in the manufacture of materials that are used in the manufacture of vehicles is found on sheet L in the model. This information was briefly reviewed in the 2004 model update but there were still significant gaps in terms of good quality Canadian data availability. This issue has been reviewed again to search for new information that has become available in the past several years on the subject. Updated data has been incorporated into the model.
The version of the model that accompanies this report is version 3.2.
Tags: Ethanol - GHGenius 3.2 - Materials - PHEV - Sugar Cane