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 Natural Gas TagsBiodiesel
Coal Bed Methane
Crude Oil
Energy Balance
Fischer Tropsch
Fuel Cell
GHGenius 2.1
GHGenius 2.3
GHGenius 2.4
GHGenius 3.10
GHGenius 3.11
GHGenius 3.16
GHGenius 3.18
GHGenius 3.6
GHGenius 3.8
GHGenius 4.01
GHGenius 4.03
Hydrogen Transportation
Mixed Alcohols
Municipal Solid Waste
Natural Gas
Nuclear Thermo Cracking
Shale Gas
United States
 2013 US Update
 Prepared March 2013
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The update of the core US data in the model has resulted in some changes in some of the pathways. As expected, the carbon intensity of electric power has been reduced due to the competitiveness of natural gas. There was reduced coal use for electric power and increased gas consumption. Hydropower also increased in the US West region, the only region with significant hydropower, although this could be due to annual weather patterns.

Overall there is little change in the GHG emissions for petroleum products. Increased emissions for crude oil production have been offset by reductions in the refinery. CNG for light and heavy-duty vehicle use have slightly larger GHG emission reductions compared to gasoline and diesel fuel in this version of GHGenius compared to version 4.02. Natural gas production energy use is lower in the latest set of data from the US EIA.

Natural gas as a transportation fuel is gaining attention in the US and in Canada. It was shown earlier that there are some reductions in the natural gas emissions delivered to an industrial user as a result of the data update. These upstream emissions should also be apparent in the natural gas for vehicle pathways, along with any changes in the electric power carbon intensity.

The update of the energy data has a small impact on the emissions for corn ethanol and soybean biodiesel, as natural gas and electricity have lower carbon intensities as a result of this update.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - GHGenius 4.03 - Natural Gas - United States
 Natural Gas Update Report
 Prepared May 2012
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This report documents changes made to the complete natural gas lifecycle emissions. It includes all of the information that is also included in the NG Downstream Report. The tasks that this report covers includes:

Task 1: Update Conventional Natural Gas Production and Energy Data

The existing data for conventional natural gas in the GHGenius model has been updated. This included removing the relative factors used to convert U.S. gas production energy requirements to Canadian emissions and replacing them with actual Canadian conventional gas production energy and emissions data. This results in having separate Canadian and U.S. data sets allowing for more robustness.
The natural gas processing emissions have also been updated. This includes a more robust treatment of the emissions of CO2 from the raw gas so that a proper sensitivity analysis of this parameter can be undertaken.

Task 2: Update Unconventional Natural Gas Production and Energy Data

We have updated, where possible, the existing data for unconventional natural gas pathways, including coalbed methane and tight gas, but excluded shale, as one of the recent projects covered this pathway specifically. The shale gas information has been included in the report and the model so that all of the documentation is together in one document.

Task 3: Lifecycle Analysis of Conventional and Unconventional Natural Gas Pathways

Based on the new data provided to the model, we have used GHGenius to obtain carbon intensity results for Canadian conventional and unconventional natural gas pathways, including shale, coalbed methane, and tight gas. The carbon intensity results illustrate the intensities for each of the following processing stages:
1) Natural Gas Production: This stage includes emissions from the extraction and processing of natural gas. More specifically, this stage includes emissions resulting from well exploration, well drilling, well completion, and acid gas removal.
2) Transportation: This stage includes emissions to compress the NG to transport it through the main pipeline network.
3) Distribution and storage: Includes emissions for distributing the NG from the main transmission pipelines to end users.
4) End Use
Emissions due to gas leaks and flares are captured under a separate category in GHGenius (called gas leaks and flares). This includes methane losses. In the report, these emissions are appropriately disaggregated to the life cycle stages listed above so that one can observe which stage contributes most to leaks and flares.
The functional unit is a GJ of feedstock delivered to the end user. IPCC 2007 global warming factors for a 100-year time horizon have been used. Different Canadian regions have been studied.

Task 4: Sensitivity Analysis

We have performed a sensitivity analysis on unconventional natural gas parameters such as CO2 content in formation gas, overall methane leakage from the system, pipeline distances and investigated the impact of gas production rate, venting and flaring rates at the well.

Tags: GHGenius 4.01 - Natural Gas
 Downstream Natural Gas Update
 Prepared May 2012
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GHGenius has traditionally been focussed on the emissions from the transportation sector but the model is capable of reporting emissions for all sectors of the economy. One aspect of this work was to make it easier for the model to be used for modelling emissions in these other sectors. The scope of this work included the following:

1. An update of natural gas pipeline emissions including both transmission and distribution, including their fugitive emissions. Some data was supplied by the CGA as part of this work and other data sources were also sourced. The transmission energy use and emissions have also been regionalized as part of this work.

2. A re-organizing of the GHGenius tool to model lifecycle emissions from using natural gas in a host of applications including vehicles, power generation, home heating, and industrial applications and to compare these emissions to other fuels. The model update includes a new user interface sheet that will allow the user to more intuitively select the fuel pathways they wish to compare, and it will allow for easy comparison of selected fuels and end uses. The rest of the GHGenius model operates separately from this sheet.

3. The new user selection sheet allows the user to select different fuels, the province (or region) in which the fuels are used, and the end use of the fuel. More advanced parameters will still be able to be changed elsewhere in the model. On the same sheet, a simplified set of results will be output. They will include, as appropriate, gCO2e/km, gCO2e/tonne steam, gCO2e/kWr, and percent comparisons.

In addition some changes have been made to the model to provide additional flexibility and allow more representative regionalization of the model. At the same time as this work was undertaken, the complete natural gas pathway in the model (including the gas production and processing stages) was comprehensively evaluated and changes made to better reflect the current data that is available. These changes are documented in a separate report. Data updates have been made to both the Canadian and US data in the model.

Tags: Electricity - GHGenius 4.01 - Industrial - Natural Gas - Residential
 Sources de Gaz Naturel Non Classique au Modèle GHG
 Prepared March 2010
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La production canadienne de gaz naturel classique diminue et devrait continuer de baisser au cours des prochaines années. Dans ses dernières prévisions, l’Office national de l’énergie s’attend à ce que le méthane de houille, le gaz de schiste et finalement le gaz des régions pionnières complètent l’offre décroissante de gaz classique et de gaz de formation imperméable comme le montre la figure suivante.

L’objectif du présent travail était de modifier les voies du gaz naturel dans le modèle GHGenius pour tenir compte des différentes sources de gaz naturel. L’utilisateur du modèle GHGenius peut maintenant choisir de modéliser chaque type de gaz naturel individuellement ou un mélange des différents types de production. Les données servant à la modélisation de ces différentes sources de gaz n’étaient pas aussi bien étoffées que celles pour les gaz classiques et le modèle a été conçu afin de faciliter le changement des entrées au fur et à mesure que de meilleures données sont disponibles.

Tags: Coal Bed Methane - GHGenius 3.18 - Natural Gas - Shale Gas
 Unconventional Natural Gas
 Prepared March 2010
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Canadian production of conventional natural gas is declining and is expected to continue to decline over the next few years. The National Energy Board, in their latest forecast, sees coal bed methane, shale gas, and eventually frontier gas supplementing declining supplies of conventional gas and tight gas.

The goal of this work was to modify the natural gas pathways in GHGenius to accommodate these different sources of natural gas. The GHGenius user can now choose to model each type of natural gas individually or a blend of the different types of production. The data used for modelling these different sources of gas was not as well developed as the data for conventional gas and the model has been developed so that it is easy to change these inputs as better data become available.

Tags: Coal Bed Methane - GHGenius 3.18 - Natural Gas - Shale Gas
 2009 GHGenius Update
 Prepared September 2009
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This report covers an update of the following data in GHGenius. In some cases the structure of the model has been slightly changed to accommodate the time series but any difference in the results is due to the new input data and not due to any structural changes in the way that the model handles the new data.

1. International crude oil energy and emissions. Several new data sources have recently been identified. These include the International Oil and Gas Association (a time series from 2002 of the energy and GHG emissions of crude oil production for various regions of the world), data from the Alberta Energy Research Institute studies (some specific useful information for countries such as Mexico, Venezuela, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia), and the World Bank flaring study.

2. Canadian electricity. A time series of electric power production on a regional basis in Canada from 2000 has been be developed from Statistics Canada data. Regional generation efficiencies and proportions of power types have been extracted from the data.

3. Rail energy. Statistics Canada has a time series data for freight movement on Class 1 railways. This data has been compared to similar information from the United States and incorporated in the model.

4. Potash mining. Statistics Canada, CIEEDAC, and NRCan Comprehensive Energy Use Database provide a time series for energy consumption, quantity and type. This has been compared to the NRCan CIPEC report that was used as a data source in the model. The new information has been incorporated into the model.

5. Nitrogen fertilizer. Statistics Canada, CIEEDAC, and NRCan Comprehensive Energy Use Database all have a time series for information on this sector. These data sets do not include process energy consumption but that can be calculated. The data sets have been compared to the NRCan CIPEC report that was the base of data in the model.

6. Corn and Soybeans. Fertilizer and yield time series available from the USDA. Some Statistics Canada yield data on these crops and other Canadian crops is available as well. This time series data has been incorporated into the model.

7. Ethanol and Biodiesel energy requirements. New data from the United States is available for both these alternative fuels. An update and development of a time series for ethanol has been incorporated into the model.

8. Some users have identified a number of enhancements for the functioning of the EV macro in GHGenius. These modifications have been incorporated into GHGenius. They provide more functionality and having them in the public model will allow them to be continually updated as model enhancements are undertaken.

9. Natural gas update. The Canadian Gas Association has provided some recent information on distribution emissions. Unfortunately the report did not provide activity data but that that has been developed from other sources. In addition Statistics Canada has data on the natural gas sector and this will be reviewed to see if it can be worked into the model.

Tags: Biodiesel - Corn - Crude Oil - Electricity - Ethanol - Fertilizer - GHGenius 3.16 - Natural Gas - Soybeans
 Energy Balance
 Prepared November 2007
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This work entailed the addition of a new Energy Balance sheet to the model. This sheet has tables of the secondary energy by fuel type for each stage of all of the pathways. There are tables for electricity, coal, natural gas, diesel fuel, biomass, crude oil, gasoline and another table to account for minor fuels such as LPG, coke, still gas, etc. From these tables the primary energy inputs into each pathway can be calculated from existing data in the model.
This approach of producing separate tables for each type of energy and then rolling all of the data into the primary energy table will not only add some structure to the primary energy calculations but it will also yield information on the types of fuel consumed in the pathways that will have value by themselves.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - Energy Balance - GHGenius 3.11 - Gasoline - Natural Gas
 US Data Update
 Prepared October 2007
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The report covers work on the regionalization of the US fuel production pathways, and the updating of the basic data that covers US electric power production, US natural gas production and flows, US crude oil production and flows, and the US petroleum refining sector. The revised model resulting from this work has more functionality for modelling various scenarios in the US and more up to date data on the traditional US energy sector.

This report has been prepared to document the changes that have been made to GHGenius in terms of updating US data and the regionalization of some of the data. The version of the model that accompanies this report is GHGenius 3.10.
There are some small changes in the average results for the United States for the fossil energy pathways as a result of this update. The results for Canada also show some very small changes as a result of updating some of the foreign oil production data and as a result of a few small structural improvements in the way that the US natural gas values are calculated.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - GHGenius 3.10 - Natural Gas
 2007 Crude Oil GHGenius Update Report
 Prepared April 2007
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The energy requirements for the production of Canadian crude oil have been updated. The energy data for the various classes of crude oil has been extracted from the NRCan report, “Canada’s Energy Outlook: The Reference Case 2006”. and incorporated into the data on sheet S in the model.

Other sources of information were sought to validate the Outlook data. In some cases these other sources were used where the data appeared to be more complete or could be corroborated. This has provided a better profile of the energy requirements for oil production in Canada.

The type of information included for all of the different types of crude oil has been expanded to include the density and the sulphur content. This way it is now possible to determine the actual oil density and sulphur content of the oil that is going into the refinery rather than using the essentially static values that were previously in the model.

Tags: Crude Oil - GHGenius 3.8 - Natural Gas - Refining
 Wood Ethanol Report
 Prepared November 2006
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- For wood to ethanol the process data is sparse but there is one complete set of mass and energy balance data that was developed by the US DOE several years ago that will be used as the base. This input data was also discussed with researchers at UBC who have been active in this field for many years although they have focussed on individual steps in the process rather than on the overall process. We have also reviewed the process emissions on sheet N in the model for all of the biological ethanol pathways and separated the inputs for wood, ag residues, corn and wheat ethanol.

- For wood to natural gas there is some work underway in Europe investigating and demonstrating at the pilot level the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. Some preliminary data is available. This data has been reviewed and the model has been updated to reflect recent advances.

- There is some interest in producing pipeline quality gas from coal in Canada. There is one commercial pant in the United States (Dakota Gasification) and the literature surrounding that plant has been reviewed, along with new process developments in the field, to develop the basis for a new pathway in the model. This pathway is similar to the wood to natural gas pathway and the use of the gas will include light and heavy-duty vehicles.

Tags: Coal - Ethanol - GHGenius 3.6 - Lignocellulosic - Natural Gas - Wood
 FT Distillate Report
 Prepared March 2006
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FT distillates or gas to liquids (GTL) products are becoming commercial fuels in many parts of the world. The plants producing these fuels are likely to be located in regions with stranded gas assets and the products from the plants are likely to be exported all around the world. In GHGenius, the current default conditions indicate that the lifecycle GHG emissions from these fuels are slightly higher than diesel fuel produced from crude oil. There have been other lifecycle analyses performed on the process and some claim a reduction in GHG emissions for this production pathway. Several of these other reports (PwC on the Shell MDS process, the Five Winds International review for Shell, Sasol and Chevron, Energy and Environmental Solutions, LLC report for the US DOE, and the ConocoPhillips and Nexant report) have been reviewed to determine the reasons for the discrepancies.

There are three primary factors that have been identified that contribute to the different results reported for the GHG emission performance of FT distillate fuels. These are the efficiency of the conversion process, the allocation procedure used in the conventional oil refinery for the emissions for individual products, and the emissions associated with natural gas production.

Since all of the reports are relying on engineering studies for the key thermal efficiency value it is not possible to state that one report has used the correct value and another report has used an incorrect value. Different processes configurations will have different efficiencies due to the reforming approach used, the catalysts employed and other factors. Gas composition could also play a role in the overall efficiency. It could also be that different developers provide the data on a different basis, and annual average or steady state operations for example. The start-up and shut down steps can result in significant GHG emissions with little products being produced and these should be amortized over each cycle.

Similarly it is not possible to conclude that one allocation method is superior to another. It can be seen in the PwC and ConocoPhillips work that even using the same functional expansion for co-products very different results can be obtained depending on how the alternative products are produced, natural gas versus coal based products in this case. The choice between natural gas and coal could be different in different regions and may even vary with price, favouring natural gas at low oil prices and coal at high prices. It should be noted that the allocation methodology used in the PwC report would make all alternative fuels look better, not just FT distillates.

There are also differences that will be caused by location differences due to the gas composition, the energy required to produce the gas, and the degree of processing that the raw gas undergoes before entering the GTL plant.

The GHGenius model has been used to quantify the GHG emissions impact of the primary differences between the studies and it has been determined that the process conversion efficiency, the allocation procedures, and the emissions associated with natural gas production are the primary factors leading to the different reported emission results.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Natural Gas
 Alternative and Future Fuels for Road Vehicles
 Prepared for Transportation Issues Table, National Climate Change Process in July 1999
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The first work that used the Canadian version of LEM and formed the basis for the development of GHgenius.
Considered Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles
14 fuels considered.
Greenhouse gas emission reductions calculated.
Cost effectiveness of GHG reductions calculated.

Tags: Ethanol - Hydrogen - Methanol - Natural Gas
 GHG Emissions from Natural Gas Vehicles
 Prepared for Canadian Natural Gas Vehicle Alliance in January 2003
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The objectives of this work were to document the benefits of the use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel in three classes of vehicles. The vehicles classes that were of interest were:
  • Light duty vehicles using compressed natural gas, with a focus on full size passenger cars and vans.
  • Medium duty vehicles that could be fuelled with either compressed or liquefied natural gas. These might be refuse haulers or urban buses.
  • Heavy-duty trucks that use liquefied natural gas and the Westport Cycle engines.

For each of these classes of vehicles the impact that the fuel and engine has on greenhouse gas emissions, on the cost effectiveness of the greenhouse gas emission reduction and on criteria air contaminants were calculated and reported.

Tags: GHGenius 2.1 - Natural Gas
 Hydrogen Pathways, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and En
 Prepared for Fuel Cells Canada and Natural Resources Canada in December 2003
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Fifty pathways for transportation fuels are evaluated for their lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. Forty-five of those involve hydrogen. Thirty-six pathways have been investigated for their energy use and thirty-one of those involve hydrogen. The hydrogen pathways that are studied include the following components:
  • Feedstocks. The following feedstocks can be converted to hydrogen: coal, crude oil, natural gas, biomass, nuclear energy, and hydropower (can also be used as a proxy for wind and solar).
  • Intermediate Products. In addition to the direct production of hydrogen, some of the feedstocks mentioned above can produce various intermediate energy carriers that can be used for the eventual production of hydrogen; these include methanol, electricity, ethanol, LPG, FT Distillate, and gasoline.
  • Distribution. Hydrogen can be produced on site or it can be produced at a central facility. The distribution from a central facility can be as a liquid or a compressed gas. The compressed gas can be distributed by pipeline or by truck. Liquid hydrogen can be distributed by truck or rail. Some of the pathways will only be feasible with large central facilities that require hydrogen distribution while others could be small decentralized systems or large central systems. The impacts of the distribution system on the results are discussed and the most likely option for each pathway can be modeled.
  • Utilization. The hydrogen could be used in an internal combustion engine or in a fuel cell. The data in GHGenius for the hydrogen ICE has been reviewed with a literature search to ensure that it is consistent with the latest developments in this area.

Tags: Coal - Crude Oil - Fuel Cell - GHGenius 2.3 - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Transportation - Natural Gas
 Biomass to Syngas Processes
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in March 2004
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The goal of this work was to add five new pathways to GHGenius. The new pathways are:
  • Wood to mixed alcohols,
  • Refuse derived fuel (RDF) to mixed alcohols,
  • Wood to FT distillate,
  • RDF to FT distillate, and
  • Natural gas to mixed alcohols.

The new pathways are fully integrated into GHGenius, for each fuel cycle the fuel is used for both light duty and heavy duty applications. All of the existing functionality of the model has been retained.
This work has involved the development of a new feedstock, RDF. This material is produced by collecting, separating and in some cases processing municipal solid waste (MSW). The user can now specify all of the key parameters, collection distances, processing energy, and material yield for collecting and converting MSW to RDF.
A new fuel, mixed alcohols has been added to the model. This fuel is a mixture of C1 to C5 alcohols and the user can specify the mixture of alcohols consistent with the rest of the inputs. This fuel could be used in low level blends with gasoline or diesel fuel or as a fuel itself in large heavy-duty engines. All of these applications have been added to the model.
While the primary interest in the mixed alcohols is for their production from the renewable feedstocks, wood and RDF, a pathway to produce the mixed alcohols from natural gas has been added for comparison.
It is also feasible to produce FT Distillate from wood or RDF rather than from natural gas and these are the fourth and fifth pathways added to the model, The FT Distillate is used in heavy-duty engines either alone or in a blend with conventional diesel fuel. The production of FT Distillate from natural gas was already in the model for comparison.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 2.4 - Mixed Alcohols - Municipal Solid Waste - Natural Gas - RDF - Wood
 Off Board Generation of Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Veh
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in August 2002
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The purpose of this work was to add fuel cycles to GHGenius that may be demonstrated in the Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance demonstrations and allow an assessment of the projected greenhouse gas benefits before the projects are funded by the CTFCA.
The GHGenius model has been successfully updated with additional hydrogen production and hydrogen utilization pathways. The following hydrogen production pathways have been added:
  • Off board reforming of methanol
  • Off board reforming of ethanol
  • Off board reforming of gasoline
  • Off board reforming of FT Distillate
  • Off board reforming of LPG
  • The use of nuclear energy to produce hydrogen through thermal cracking

In addition, the use of mixtures of natural gas and hydrogen (Hythane®) in both light duty spark ignited engines and in heavy-duty natural gas engines have been added to the model. The hydrogen for these mixtures can be produced either from SMR or from electrolysis.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Fuel Cell - Gasoline - Hydrogen - Hythane - Natural Gas - Nuclear Thermo Cracking
 GHG Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles
 Prepared for Methanex Corporation in June 2000
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The primary intent of this report is to cover most of the fuels currently being considered for FCV and to determine the GHG emissions in the Canadian context. GHGenius was used to calculate GHG’s and is capable of calculating emissions in Canada and the United States so the results for the United States are also presented. There is some discussion of the likely results in Japan and Europe based on the carbon intensity of their electricity generating sectors.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Fuel Cell - Hydrogen - Methanol - Natural Gas
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