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 Mixed Alcohols TagsCrude Oil
Electricity
Ethanol
Fischer Tropsch
GHGenius 2.4
GHGenius 3.3
Hydrogen
Methanol
Mixed Alcohols
Municipal Solid Waste
Natural Gas
RDF
Refining
Sequestration
Wood
 GHGenius Sequestration Report
 Prepared April 2006
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The report covers work on the expansion of pathways and expanding the results from existing pathways. This work involved the following tasks and deliverables.

1. The potential to include carbon dioxide sequestration to a number of feedstock and fuel production pathways has been added to the model. There was previously a switch in GHGenius to account for carbon sequestration in thermal power generation but this was a very simply approach to the issue and it underestimated the emissions in the upstream portion of power generation. There are a number of other places where sequestration might be employed. These include gasification plants, oil sands upgraders, oil refineries, methanol, and ethanol plants. The capability of adding a sequestration step to all of these facilities has been added to GHGenius and the current switch for electric power plants has been removed to calculate the impact of carbon storage more robustly for power plants.

2. The capability of using biodiesel in the light duty diesel and light duty hybrid diesel vehicles has been added to the model. These pathways have also been added to the LDV Summary sheet and the Light Duty Cost effectiveness output sheets. This involved only the combination of existing fuel and vehicle pathways in the model.

3. The tables 51c and 51e on sheet I have been expanded to include all of the pathways in the model. This included the pathways that are primarily electric in nature. It should be noted that in GHGenius, electric power is treated as a primary energy source where a kWh of power is converted to 3,600 kJ of energy. Some other models consider electric power a secondary source of energy and account for the energy of one kWh based on the energy that went in to the power plant so there may be some differences in the results shown in GHGenius compared to some other models. We may want to consider changing this in the future.

4. For some types of oil production there are surface disturbances that will result in a loss of biomass and soil carbon. The emissions from these disturbances are included in the coal mining pathway but not in the oil sands pathways. The emissions from this source for oil production pathways have been added to the model where appropriate.

GHGenius has been modified to allow the incorporation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) into many of the fuel and energy pathways in the model. This has been accomplished in a manner that provides a significant amount of flexibility for the user. There is still a considerable amount of uncertainty with respect to the actual performance of CCS systems in real world applications. With some large projects now being proposed some real data may become available in a few years that can be used to further refine the values used in GHGenius.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - Ethanol - Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 3.3 - Hydrogen - Methanol - Mixed Alcohols - Refining - Sequestration
 Biomass to Syngas Processes
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in March 2004
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The goal of this work was to add five new pathways to GHGenius. The new pathways are:
  • Wood to mixed alcohols,
  • Refuse derived fuel (RDF) to mixed alcohols,
  • Wood to FT distillate,
  • RDF to FT distillate, and
  • Natural gas to mixed alcohols.


The new pathways are fully integrated into GHGenius, for each fuel cycle the fuel is used for both light duty and heavy duty applications. All of the existing functionality of the model has been retained.
This work has involved the development of a new feedstock, RDF. This material is produced by collecting, separating and in some cases processing municipal solid waste (MSW). The user can now specify all of the key parameters, collection distances, processing energy, and material yield for collecting and converting MSW to RDF.
A new fuel, mixed alcohols has been added to the model. This fuel is a mixture of C1 to C5 alcohols and the user can specify the mixture of alcohols consistent with the rest of the inputs. This fuel could be used in low level blends with gasoline or diesel fuel or as a fuel itself in large heavy-duty engines. All of these applications have been added to the model.
While the primary interest in the mixed alcohols is for their production from the renewable feedstocks, wood and RDF, a pathway to produce the mixed alcohols from natural gas has been added for comparison.
It is also feasible to produce FT Distillate from wood or RDF rather than from natural gas and these are the fourth and fifth pathways added to the model, The FT Distillate is used in heavy-duty engines either alone or in a blend with conventional diesel fuel. The production of FT Distillate from natural gas was already in the model for comparison.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 2.4 - Mixed Alcohols - Municipal Solid Waste - Natural Gas - RDF - Wood
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