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 Methanol TagsBiodiesel
Crude Oil
Electricity
Electrolysis
Ethanol
Fischer Tropsch
Fuel Cell
GHGenius 2.1
GHGenius 2.5
GHGenius 3.3
Hydrogen
LFG
Marine Oil
Methanol
Mixed Alcohols
Natural Gas
Refining
Sequestration
 GHGenius Sequestration Report
 Prepared April 2006
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The report covers work on the expansion of pathways and expanding the results from existing pathways. This work involved the following tasks and deliverables.

1. The potential to include carbon dioxide sequestration to a number of feedstock and fuel production pathways has been added to the model. There was previously a switch in GHGenius to account for carbon sequestration in thermal power generation but this was a very simply approach to the issue and it underestimated the emissions in the upstream portion of power generation. There are a number of other places where sequestration might be employed. These include gasification plants, oil sands upgraders, oil refineries, methanol, and ethanol plants. The capability of adding a sequestration step to all of these facilities has been added to GHGenius and the current switch for electric power plants has been removed to calculate the impact of carbon storage more robustly for power plants.

2. The capability of using biodiesel in the light duty diesel and light duty hybrid diesel vehicles has been added to the model. These pathways have also been added to the LDV Summary sheet and the Light Duty Cost effectiveness output sheets. This involved only the combination of existing fuel and vehicle pathways in the model.

3. The tables 51c and 51e on sheet I have been expanded to include all of the pathways in the model. This included the pathways that are primarily electric in nature. It should be noted that in GHGenius, electric power is treated as a primary energy source where a kWh of power is converted to 3,600 kJ of energy. Some other models consider electric power a secondary source of energy and account for the energy of one kWh based on the energy that went in to the power plant so there may be some differences in the results shown in GHGenius compared to some other models. We may want to consider changing this in the future.

4. For some types of oil production there are surface disturbances that will result in a loss of biomass and soil carbon. The emissions from these disturbances are included in the coal mining pathway but not in the oil sands pathways. The emissions from this source for oil production pathways have been added to the model where appropriate.

GHGenius has been modified to allow the incorporation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) into many of the fuel and energy pathways in the model. This has been accomplished in a manner that provides a significant amount of flexibility for the user. There is still a considerable amount of uncertainty with respect to the actual performance of CCS systems in real world applications. With some large projects now being proposed some real data may become available in a few years that can be used to further refine the values used in GHGenius.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - Ethanol - Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 3.3 - Hydrogen - Methanol - Mixed Alcohols - Refining - Sequestration
 Marine Based Biodiesel
 Prepared November 2004
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GHGenius has had pathways for the production of biodiesel from canola, soybeans, animal tallow and yellow grease. This work adds the generic production of biodiesel from marine oils to GHGenius and compares those results to a specific Canadian operation, Ocean Nutrition, producing marine oil biodiesel.
Ocean Nutrition produces an ethyl ester from marine oils in Nova Scotia. The process is commercially unique from several perspectives including, the use of ethanol rather than the more common methanol as the alcohol, the use of marine oils as the feedstock, and the co-processing that is carried out to produce Omega 3 oils for nutritional purposes as well as producing biodiesel.
The goal of this work is to:
· Add the commercial harvesting of fish and its reduction to proteins and oils to GHGenius.
· Add a biodiesel pathway that utilizes marine oils as the feedstock to complement the existing animal fats and vegetable oil pathways.
· Modify and expand GHGenius to allow the use of ethanol rather than methanol in the biodiesel production system. Review the literature to determine how others have addressed this issue since the carbon in the ethanol is renewable whereas in the methanol it is not. It may be that the impact is on the glycerine production and how that is ultimately used.
· Address the allocation issues raised by the co-production of biodiesel and the high value Omega-3 oils produced in the Ocean Nutrition process.

Tags: Biodiesel - Ethanol - GHGenius 2.5 - Marine Oil - Methanol
 Alternative and Future Fuels for Road Vehicles
 Prepared for Transportation Issues Table, National Climate Change Process in July 1999
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The first work that used the Canadian version of LEM and formed the basis for the development of GHgenius.
Considered Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles
14 fuels considered.
Greenhouse gas emission reductions calculated.
Cost effectiveness of GHG reductions calculated.

Tags: Ethanol - Hydrogen - Methanol - Natural Gas
 Landfill Gas to Methanol
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in January 2003
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An interesting pathway to produce transportation fuel is to process landfill gas to methanol. Landfill gas typically contains 50-60% methane, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. The methane can be captured and then flared or used in an energy recovery process. There are a number of landfills, including some in Canada, which use the captured gas to produce steam and electricity. An alternative process is to convert the methane into a transportation fuel such as methanol. The methanol can be used in spark-ignited engines (M85), in modified compression ignited engines (M100), reformed onboard for use in fuel cell vehicles, or reformed to produce hydrogen for use in fuel ell vehicles.
This fuel cycle that uses landfill gas to produce methanol has been successfully added to GHGenius. The model has also expanded the use of hydrogen from electrolysis by adding a heavy-duty fuel cell pathway. Each of the new pathways has full functionality in the model including the summary sheets and the cost effectiveness calculations.

Tags: Electrolysis - GHGenius 2.1 - Hydrogen - LFG - Methanol
 GHG Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles
 Prepared for Methanex Corporation in June 2000
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The primary intent of this report is to cover most of the fuels currently being considered for FCV and to determine the GHG emissions in the Canadian context. GHGenius was used to calculate GHG’s and is capable of calculating emissions in Canada and the United States so the results for the United States are also presented. There is some discussion of the likely results in Japan and Europe based on the carbon intensity of their electricity generating sectors.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Fuel Cell - Hydrogen - Methanol - Natural Gas
(S&T)2 Consultants Inc. 2004 Important Notices