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This report documents a literature search of previous work on the emissions associated with the construction of electric power facilities (nuclear, hydro, thermal, and wind), oil refineries, ethanol production plants and other production facilities. The identified literature has been assessed on a common basis and conclusions reached about the GHG emissions from the construction phase of a project. The literature search has identified anther approach to quantifying the emissions from the construction phase of projects, the use of economic input-output data which can be used when the quantification of materials and energy inputs are not available to achieve a reasonable estimate of emissions.
Tags: Biodiesel - Electricity - Ethanol - Hydrogen - Materials - Refining
1. A new table has been added to sheet I that shows the fossil energy consumption per kilometre driven. This augments the existing Table 51c that shows the total energy consumed per kilometre driven.
2. New information on the energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada has recently become available. This information has been reviewed, and the formulas on sheet G have been changed to be consistent with this new data.
3. There is increased interest in the concept of plug in hybrid vehicles. These vehicles have a larger battery pack than existing hybrid vehicles and must be plugged in to maximize the battery charge. The vehicles operate with some fraction of the energy consumed provided by the power from the grid rather than having all of the power provided by the gasoline engine. These vehicles can operate as a combination of a battery powered electric vehicle and a gasoline vehicle. This pathway has been added to the results sheets using a user specified fraction of distance provided by the grid power and battery size.
4. There has also been interest in modelling gasoline powered heavy-duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy-duty vehicles. These vehicles may also be medium duty vehicles so the classes of vehicles modelled have been expanded by including vehicle weight as part of the user inputs. This will allow the different weight classes to exhibit different efficiencies. The US EPA guidance on this issue has been followed.
5. The production of ethanol from sugar cane has been added to the model. While the production of ethanol from sugar cane is not likely possible in Canada, there has been some sugar cane ethanol imported into Canada and interest in this pathway remains high in Canada. Some information on the production process is available from Brazilian sources and this information has been reviewed to extract the data required for adding this pathway to GHGenius.
6. The energy consumed in the manufacture of materials that are used in the manufacture of vehicles is found on sheet L in the model. This information was briefly reviewed in the 2004 model update but there were still significant gaps in terms of good quality Canadian data availability. This issue has been reviewed again to search for new information that has become available in the past several years on the subject. Updated data has been incorporated into the model.
The version of the model that accompanies this report is version 3.2.
Tags: Ethanol - GHGenius 3.2 - Materials - PHEV - Sugar Cane