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 Hydrogen TagsBiodiesel
Crude Oil
Fischer Tropsch
Fuel Cell
GHGenius 2.1
GHGenius 2.3
GHGenius 3.3
Hydrogen Transportation
Mixed Alcohols
Natural Gas
Nuclear Thermo Cracking
 GHGenius Sequestration Report
 Prepared April 2006
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The report covers work on the expansion of pathways and expanding the results from existing pathways. This work involved the following tasks and deliverables.

1. The potential to include carbon dioxide sequestration to a number of feedstock and fuel production pathways has been added to the model. There was previously a switch in GHGenius to account for carbon sequestration in thermal power generation but this was a very simply approach to the issue and it underestimated the emissions in the upstream portion of power generation. There are a number of other places where sequestration might be employed. These include gasification plants, oil sands upgraders, oil refineries, methanol, and ethanol plants. The capability of adding a sequestration step to all of these facilities has been added to GHGenius and the current switch for electric power plants has been removed to calculate the impact of carbon storage more robustly for power plants.

2. The capability of using biodiesel in the light duty diesel and light duty hybrid diesel vehicles has been added to the model. These pathways have also been added to the LDV Summary sheet and the Light Duty Cost effectiveness output sheets. This involved only the combination of existing fuel and vehicle pathways in the model.

3. The tables 51c and 51e on sheet I have been expanded to include all of the pathways in the model. This included the pathways that are primarily electric in nature. It should be noted that in GHGenius, electric power is treated as a primary energy source where a kWh of power is converted to 3,600 kJ of energy. Some other models consider electric power a secondary source of energy and account for the energy of one kWh based on the energy that went in to the power plant so there may be some differences in the results shown in GHGenius compared to some other models. We may want to consider changing this in the future.

4. For some types of oil production there are surface disturbances that will result in a loss of biomass and soil carbon. The emissions from these disturbances are included in the coal mining pathway but not in the oil sands pathways. The emissions from this source for oil production pathways have been added to the model where appropriate.

GHGenius has been modified to allow the incorporation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) into many of the fuel and energy pathways in the model. This has been accomplished in a manner that provides a significant amount of flexibility for the user. There is still a considerable amount of uncertainty with respect to the actual performance of CCS systems in real world applications. With some large projects now being proposed some real data may become available in a few years that can be used to further refine the values used in GHGenius.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - Ethanol - Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 3.3 - Hydrogen - Methanol - Mixed Alcohols - Refining - Sequestration
 Construction Emissions
 Prepared March 2006
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Most analyses of energy production pathways do not include any emissions attributable to the construction of the energy production facilities themselves. This simplification of the production pathway is allowed under ISO 14000 guidelines if the emissions are not material. Many researchers make this claim for the construction and decommissioning stage but there are other analysts who often challenge this perspective. These analysts may use the omission of construction emissions as a reason not to trust a comparison between fuel pathways.

This report documents a literature search of previous work on the emissions associated with the construction of electric power facilities (nuclear, hydro, thermal, and wind), oil refineries, ethanol production plants and other production facilities. The identified literature has been assessed on a common basis and conclusions reached about the GHG emissions from the construction phase of a project. The literature search has identified anther approach to quantifying the emissions from the construction phase of projects, the use of economic input-output data which can be used when the quantification of materials and energy inputs are not available to achieve a reasonable estimate of emissions.

Tags: Biodiesel - Electricity - Ethanol - Hydrogen - Materials - Refining
 Alternative and Future Fuels for Road Vehicles
 Prepared for Transportation Issues Table, National Climate Change Process in July 1999
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The first work that used the Canadian version of LEM and formed the basis for the development of GHgenius.
Considered Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles
14 fuels considered.
Greenhouse gas emission reductions calculated.
Cost effectiveness of GHG reductions calculated.

Tags: Ethanol - Hydrogen - Methanol - Natural Gas
 Hydrogen Pathways, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and En
 Prepared for Fuel Cells Canada and Natural Resources Canada in December 2003
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Fifty pathways for transportation fuels are evaluated for their lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. Forty-five of those involve hydrogen. Thirty-six pathways have been investigated for their energy use and thirty-one of those involve hydrogen. The hydrogen pathways that are studied include the following components:
  • Feedstocks. The following feedstocks can be converted to hydrogen: coal, crude oil, natural gas, biomass, nuclear energy, and hydropower (can also be used as a proxy for wind and solar).
  • Intermediate Products. In addition to the direct production of hydrogen, some of the feedstocks mentioned above can produce various intermediate energy carriers that can be used for the eventual production of hydrogen; these include methanol, electricity, ethanol, LPG, FT Distillate, and gasoline.
  • Distribution. Hydrogen can be produced on site or it can be produced at a central facility. The distribution from a central facility can be as a liquid or a compressed gas. The compressed gas can be distributed by pipeline or by truck. Liquid hydrogen can be distributed by truck or rail. Some of the pathways will only be feasible with large central facilities that require hydrogen distribution while others could be small decentralized systems or large central systems. The impacts of the distribution system on the results are discussed and the most likely option for each pathway can be modeled.
  • Utilization. The hydrogen could be used in an internal combustion engine or in a fuel cell. The data in GHGenius for the hydrogen ICE has been reviewed with a literature search to ensure that it is consistent with the latest developments in this area.

Tags: Coal - Crude Oil - Fuel Cell - GHGenius 2.3 - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Transportation - Natural Gas
 Coal and Biomass to Hydrogen
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in August 2003
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The goal of this work was to add two new hydrogen pathways, coal to hydrogen and biomass to hydrogen. The new pathways are fully integrated into GHGenius, for each fuel cycle the fuel will be used for both light duty and heavy duty applications fuel cell applications. All of the existing functionality of the model has be retained.
Both of these new pathways are likely to involve large individual plants. The hydrogen will be transported from these plants to the locations where it will be dispensed. Previous versions of GHGenius handled the transportation of hydrogen in different and less robust ways than the distribution of other fuels. This has been changed in this new version of GHGenius. The user now has much greater flexibility to model the way that hydrogen is distributed.

Tags: Coal - GHGenius 2.3 - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Transportation - Wood
 Landfill Gas to Methanol
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in January 2003
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An interesting pathway to produce transportation fuel is to process landfill gas to methanol. Landfill gas typically contains 50-60% methane, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. The methane can be captured and then flared or used in an energy recovery process. There are a number of landfills, including some in Canada, which use the captured gas to produce steam and electricity. An alternative process is to convert the methane into a transportation fuel such as methanol. The methanol can be used in spark-ignited engines (M85), in modified compression ignited engines (M100), reformed onboard for use in fuel cell vehicles, or reformed to produce hydrogen for use in fuel ell vehicles.
This fuel cycle that uses landfill gas to produce methanol has been successfully added to GHGenius. The model has also expanded the use of hydrogen from electrolysis by adding a heavy-duty fuel cell pathway. Each of the new pathways has full functionality in the model including the summary sheets and the cost effectiveness calculations.

Tags: Electrolysis - GHGenius 2.1 - Hydrogen - LFG - Methanol
 Off Board Generation of Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Veh
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in August 2002
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The purpose of this work was to add fuel cycles to GHGenius that may be demonstrated in the Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance demonstrations and allow an assessment of the projected greenhouse gas benefits before the projects are funded by the CTFCA.
The GHGenius model has been successfully updated with additional hydrogen production and hydrogen utilization pathways. The following hydrogen production pathways have been added:
  • Off board reforming of methanol
  • Off board reforming of ethanol
  • Off board reforming of gasoline
  • Off board reforming of FT Distillate
  • Off board reforming of LPG
  • The use of nuclear energy to produce hydrogen through thermal cracking

In addition, the use of mixtures of natural gas and hydrogen (Hythane®) in both light duty spark ignited engines and in heavy-duty natural gas engines have been added to the model. The hydrogen for these mixtures can be produced either from SMR or from electrolysis.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Fuel Cell - Gasoline - Hydrogen - Hythane - Natural Gas - Nuclear Thermo Cracking
 GHG Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles
 Prepared for Methanex Corporation in June 2000
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The primary intent of this report is to cover most of the fuels currently being considered for FCV and to determine the GHG emissions in the Canadian context. GHGenius was used to calculate GHG’s and is capable of calculating emissions in Canada and the United States so the results for the United States are also presented. There is some discussion of the likely results in Japan and Europe based on the carbon intensity of their electricity generating sectors.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Fuel Cell - Hydrogen - Methanol - Natural Gas
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