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 HRD TagsAlgae
Barley
Bio Jet
Biodiesel
Camelina
Canola
Corn
Ethanol
GHGenius 3.16
GHGenius 4.01
HRD
Jatropha
Jet Fuel
Palm Oil
Soybeans
Sugar Cane
SuperCetane
Tallow
Used Cooking Oil
Wheat
Wheat Straw
 BioJet and Camelina
 Prepared May 2012
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This work had several components in it.

Reference pathways for fossil jet fuels have been added to the model. Two pathways are included, one a typical current aviation fuel with sulphur contents in the range of 500 to 1,000 ppm, and the second an ultra low sulphur with levels below 10 ppm. The low sulphur fuel may be required in the future and it may be a better comparison for the BioJet that typically has low or no sulphur. The focus of the work will be on the upstream emissions.

The processing energy requirements (and thus the GHG emissions) for BioJet processes appear to be slightly more severe than the requirements for HRD processes. Therefore an HRJ (hydrotreated renewable jet) fuel pathway has been added to the model. Similarly to the HRD pathway one pathway is depicted in the model and the user will choose the feedstock to be used.

Camelina as a biodiesel, HRD, and HRJ feedstock has been added to the model. The interest in Camelina as a biofuel feedstock is increasing. There are a number of producers in Canada interested in this feedstock.

A list of other oilseeds that are not in GHGenius that have been discussed as potential biodiesel feedstocks has been prepared. For each of these a short description of the feedstock, its benefits, and drawbacks is provided.
We have investigated the state of knowledge of the emissions from the use of aviation fuels.

We have also added the potential to use BTL fuels in the aviation sector. These fuels were already in the model for road use, so they have been included as a third option in the aviation fuel use output tables in the model.


Tags: Bio Jet - Biodiesel - Camelina - GHGenius 4.01 - HRD - Jet Fuel
 2010 Biofuel Analysis
 Prepared December 2010
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In 2006, GHGenius was used to analyze the GHG emissions from the biodiesel and fuel ethanol pathways of interest in Canada. That project also investigated the sensitivity of the emissions to some of the parameters than could vary from project to project. That report has been used by a number of government departments, as they study the development of the industry in Canada. It is also one of the more popular reports on the GHGenius website.

Our knowledge of the performance of the biofuels industry in Canada has improved significantly in the four years since that work was done. In addition, GHGenius has been updated with better data on the biofuel production process and feedstock production systems. An updated report is therefore warranted, given the continued interest in the subject and the updated modelling data. The report will also serve as an updated documentation resource for these pathways in the model.

The biofuel pathways that have been analyzed in this report include five ethanol pathways, corn, wheat, barley and sugar cane based systems and a cellulosic ethanol system based on wheat straw feedstock. Six biodiesel feedstocks have been considered, canola, soybeans, tallow, used cooking oil, palm oil and jatropha. Four feedstocks have been considered for hydrotreated oils, palm, canola, tallow, and soybean oil.

For the sensitivity analysis, the focus has been on the issues that can vary from plant to plant, such as co-product drying, the use of combined heat and power, and the energy source for the thermal energy. In addition, issues that still have some uncertainty, such as changes in soil carbon are evaluated.

Tags: Barley - Biodiesel - Canola - Corn - Ethanol - HRD - Jatropha - Palm Oil - Soybeans - Sugar Cane - Tallow - Used Cooking Oil - Wheat - Wheat Straw
 Algae and Jatropha Biodiesel
 Prepared September 2009
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The cultivation and crushing of Jatropha has been added to the GHGenius model. Similar to other vegetable oil pathways in GHGenius, the Jatropha seeds are crushed to produce the oil and the oil is then transesterified to produce biodiesel.

There is increased interest in the production and use of algae to produce fuels for the transportation sector. In spite of all of the interest, there has been very little quantification of the energy and emission benefits of such an algae to biodiesel pathway published, although there is some information on the energy and material balances of some of the proposed algae systems. The available literature on algae production systems has been reviewed to gather the data that is required for modelling and the data has been added to an algae to oil pathway and an algae oil to biodiesel pathway, the same combination of systems that we use for other biodiesel systems, in the GHGenius model.

The GHGenius has been modified so that the SuperCetane pathway that was in the model and could process both tallow and canola oil can now process all eight types of vegetable oils or animal fats. The data that is used for the process is now the operating information for the Neste NExBTL and the SuperCetane description has been replaced by a more generic description of hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD).

The version of the GHGenius model that accompanies this work is version 3.16. There are other changes that have been made to version 3.16 to update the data in the model but these are described in a separate report.


Tags: Algae - Biodiesel - GHGenius 3.16 - HRD - Jatropha - SuperCetane
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