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Nuclear Thermo Cracking
The interest in biofuels continues to grow and technology developers are considering the opportunities of producing fuels, other than ethanol and biodiesel, which can be used in either blends with petroleum fuels, or as replacements for petroleum fuels. It is important that an understanding of the environmental implications of these technologies be understood before the fuels are introduced to the marketplace. This work helps to address that need by expanding GHGenius to consider two new biomass to fuel processes.
Bio-gasoline can be produced in a multistep process to gasify wood, convert the syngas to methanol or DME and then convert the methanol or DME to gasoline. The back end of the process is similar to the natural gas to methanol to gasoline process that was operated commercially in New Zealand in the 1990s by Mobil.
Bio-DME can also be produced through a similar route except without the last step of converting the DME to gasoline. DME has interesting fuel properties, including a high cetane number, and no carbon carbon bonds. It thus has potential as a replacement diesel fuel as well as a potential hydrogen carrier.
Wood feedstock in GHGenius has been represented by short rotation forestry (SRF) or by wood residues. A switch on the input sheet has been used to choose which feedstock is active in the model. There has been increased interest in harvesting timber for energy applications rather than for fibre so this third option has been added to the model. This option is now active for all of the wood to energy pathways in the model, not just the two that have been added here.
The new version of the model that accompanies this report is version 3.18.
Tags: DME - GHGenius 3.18 - Gasoline - Wood
This has been accomplished by the addition of a series of default buttons on the Input Sheet. These buttons change the model to the appropriate region, the correct provincial power mix, the appropriate crude oil slate, and the correct petroleum product distribution patterns. Like other default values in the model the user can still overwrite the cells so that no functionality is lost. There are default values developed for BC, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic Canada.
The defaults have been set up for the various commercial fuels, gasoline, diesel, natural gas, LPG, ethanol, and biodiesel. In some cases, reasonable estimates will be made of what is likely to happen in the province with respect to the supply of ethanol and biodiesel. The version of the model that accompanies this report is 3.15.
Tags: Biodiesel - Diesel - Ethanol - GHGenius 3.15 - Gasoline - Provincial Defaults
This approach of producing separate tables for each type of energy and then rolling all of the data into the primary energy table will not only add some structure to the primary energy calculations but it will also yield information on the types of fuel consumed in the pathways that will have value by themselves.
Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - Energy Balance - GHGenius 3.11 - Gasoline - Natural Gas
Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in August 2002
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The GHGenius model has been successfully updated with additional hydrogen production and hydrogen utilization pathways. The following hydrogen production pathways have been added:
- Off board reforming of methanol
- Off board reforming of ethanol
- Off board reforming of gasoline
- Off board reforming of FT Distillate
- Off board reforming of LPG
- The use of nuclear energy to produce hydrogen through thermal cracking
In addition, the use of mixtures of natural gas and hydrogen (Hythane®) in both light duty spark ignited engines and in heavy-duty natural gas engines have been added to the model. The hydrogen for these mixtures can be produced either from SMR or from electrolysis.
Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Fuel Cell - Gasoline - Hydrogen - Hythane - Natural Gas - Nuclear Thermo Cracking