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 GHGenius 4.03 TagsCanola
Corn Oil
Crude Oil
Fuel Economy
GHGenius 4.03
Land Use
Natural Gas
Palm Oil
United States
 GHGenius 4.03 Manual Volume 2
 Prepared March 2013
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The GHGenius user manual has been updated to version 4.03 of the model. The manual is split into two volumes. Both volumes are organized by sheet in the model.

Volume 1 of the manual documents the structure of the model, the important parameters, and the similarities and differences with the LEM model.

Volume 2 of the manual documents the data and data sources that are used in the model.

The manual is a work in progress. It is the intention to continually update the manual as new versions of the model are released.

Tags: GHGenius 4.03 - Manual
 GHGenius Manual 4.03 Volume 1
 Prepared March 2013
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The GHGenius user manual has been updated to version 4.03 of the model. The manual is split into two volumes. Both volumes are organized by sheet in the model.

Volume 1 of the manual documents the structure of the model, the important parameters, and the similarities and differences with the LEM model.

Volume 2 of the manual documents the data and data sources that are used in the model.

The manual is a work in progress. It is the intention to continually update the manual as new versions of the model are released.

Tags: GHGenius 4.03 - Manual
 Palm Oil and Biofuel Update
 Prepared March 2013
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The palm oil pathway was added to GHGenius in 2006. It had not been reviewed or updated since that time. There is considerably more information now available on the production system since the EPA spent several years studying the pathway for the RFS2 program and the industry in Malaysia and Indonesia released a lot of information in response to the preliminary EPA findings. Some palm oil based biofuels are being used in Canada, so it is appropriate to review and update the pathway. Particular attention was paid to the modelling of emissions from the soils in general and the peat soils in particular.

Another biofuel feedstock that is starting to be produced in Canada and is being used in the United States is corn oil extracted from the stillage of ethanol plants. This product is already a co-product of the ethanol production process, so it was relatively straightforward to add it as a feedstock for biodiesel and HRD production in the model.

The Canola Council of Canada and Agriculture and AgriFood Canada (AAFC) undertook a survey of 1000 canola producers in 2011. This survey has resulted in a wealth of information concerning fertilizer application rates, fuel usage, and pesticide application rates. This data was used to develop GHG emission data for canola production in Canada at the eco-zone level. GHGenius has been updated with this data.

AAFC also made available information on soil carbon changes by soil zone and province for the work for the Canola Council. The same information is available for all provinces with agricultural area. The US national GHG inventory reports have also been reviewed to extract the soil carbon changes due to land management change in the US. This work updated both the US and Canadian soil carbon data in the model.

The work also updated some of the N2O emission calculations with several pieces of new data. AAFC supplied the leaching emission factor by province, which was used in the model to develop regional values. There is also an AAFC paper on the ratios of grain to biomass and the nitrogen contents of above and below biomass. This data was reviewed and compared to the IPCC recommended values. The data in the model for different feedstocks comes from several sources so it would be advantageous to use one data source for most feedstocks.

The chemicals used in the biodiesel manufacturing process are based on an NBB survey undertaken in 2009, but it is believed that this data was misinterpreted when it was first produced and it reports the usage of diluted solutions for catalyst and hydrochloric acid and not the actual usage of those chemicals. This has been corrected in this version of the model.

Finally, we have reviewed the data available from Statistics Canada and AAFC on manure application rates in Canada. It would appear that there is information available that would allow a more precise estimate of manure use for fertilizer in Canada.

Tags: Canola - Corn Oil - GHGenius 4.03 - Land Use - Palm Oil
 Crude Oil Production Update 2013
 Prepared March 2013
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A significant number of changes have been made to the crude oil production calculations in GHGenius. More individual countries have been added, additional sources of information on the energy use and GHG emissions in producing countries have been reviewed, and some enhancements in the calculation of GHG emissions from gas flaring has been made.

The emissions from the production of crude oil, particularly crude oil produced outside of Canada, remains a subject of significant interest. New information has become available from work funded by Alberta Energy that looked at crude oils that are supplied to European refineries, the California Air Resources Board have released their OPGEE model and estimated carbon intensities of crude oils refined in California, and other publications on the subject have been produced.

One of the shortcomings in the current version of GHGenius is the degree of aggregation for foreign crude oils. Ten countries supply more than 75% of the imported crude oil but only 13% of the imports are from a specific country in the model and the rest are combined into a region. Some of these regions are likely to have quite different production characteristics, Russia and Norway for example. We have added seven more countries to the model so that imports from the top ten countries can be modelled as countries rather than regions.

The structure of the model has required the same changes to be made to the US regions, India and Mexico. At the same time import data up to the calendar year 2011 has been added to the model. Crude oil quality and production emissions have been reviewed and updated for the new countries as well as the regions that are not being changed. The recent Alberta Energy work, the OPGEE results, the annual OGP data, and any new sources that can be found have been reviewed for use in the model.

All of the crude oil transportation distances have been reviewed as we added the new countries to the model. We have paid particular attention to transportation distances in the country of origin prior to reaching the shipping port. We have also reviewed and added power production for oil production to each of the new countries.

A large number of changes were made to the model but the changes with the most impact on the emissions were related to venting, flaring, and fugitive emissions. These are calculated more rigorously in the model now. For most regions of the world this has resulted in an increase in methane released for crude oil production and this increases the lifecycle GHG emissions. We have updated the emissions from flaring and venting associated with crude oil production. The World Bank flaring project has released updated data for 2010 that will be reviewed for the model. Flaring emissions will be done in a more rigorous manner so that N2O emissions are also included, not just the methane and CO2 emissions.

There were very few changes made to the oil production data for Canada. Just a reduction in energy use in the offshore region and the changes in the calculation of flaring emissions, where the volume for Canada did not change but the emission calculation did.

Tags: Crude Oil - GHGenius 4.03
 Fuel Economy Update
 Prepared March 2013
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The fuel economy of the base vehicles in GHGenius has been almost constant, with only a very small change between 1995 and 2025 and then a slightly larger change between 2026 and 2050. The rates of change that were in the model were estimates made in conjunction with NRCan staff almost 15 years ago. There is new data from the EPA and Transport Canada that can be used to get much better estimates of the rate of change in fuel consumption in both Canada and the US for use in the model.

There have also been new regulations introduced that will see fuel consumption of new vehicles in Canada and the United States drop dramatically, first between 2012 and 2016 and then in a second step between 2017 and 2025. This new regulatory requirement has been incorporated into the model.

The fuel economy in the model is also used to set the vehicle weight and the distribution of materials used in the construction of the vehicle. This data is then used to calculate the GHG emissions from manufacturing and assembling the vehicle. One set of data that was developed for the Transportation Table in 1999 has been used in the model.

This work has reviewed the weight data and adjusted the vehicle weight - fuel economy relationship in the model. This has given a much better representation of the vehicle manufacturing emissions. We have developed historical relationships and use that information along with information from the EPA that was used to develop the new standards to arrive at a forecast for future changes.

The work has also reviewed the literature for any new information on the distribution of different materials in different classes of vehicles.

Tags: Fuel Economy - GHGenius 4.03
 2013 US Update
 Prepared March 2013
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The update of the core US data in the model has resulted in some changes in some of the pathways. As expected, the carbon intensity of electric power has been reduced due to the competitiveness of natural gas. There was reduced coal use for electric power and increased gas consumption. Hydropower also increased in the US West region, the only region with significant hydropower, although this could be due to annual weather patterns.

Overall there is little change in the GHG emissions for petroleum products. Increased emissions for crude oil production have been offset by reductions in the refinery. CNG for light and heavy-duty vehicle use have slightly larger GHG emission reductions compared to gasoline and diesel fuel in this version of GHGenius compared to version 4.02. Natural gas production energy use is lower in the latest set of data from the US EIA.

Natural gas as a transportation fuel is gaining attention in the US and in Canada. It was shown earlier that there are some reductions in the natural gas emissions delivered to an industrial user as a result of the data update. These upstream emissions should also be apparent in the natural gas for vehicle pathways, along with any changes in the electric power carbon intensity.

The update of the energy data has a small impact on the emissions for corn ethanol and soybean biodiesel, as natural gas and electricity have lower carbon intensities as a result of this update.

Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - GHGenius 4.03 - Natural Gas - United States
 Hydroelectricity Emission Review
 Prepared March 2013
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Hydroelectricity provides about 60% of Canada’s electricity. It is known that there is some methane that is generated from decomposing biomass in the flooded reservoirs behind the dams. The estimate of the rate of methane production currently in GHGenius is from a single reference in the original Delucchi LEM model.

Recently there has been significant work undertaken in this area. There are some estimates in the National GHG Inventory report but the academic literature has been quite active in this area. This report summarizes the findings from a literature review of the subject.

There is a wide range of GHG emission estimates for hydroelectric reservoirs in the literature. There are several common themes in many of the papers, reports, and regulatory filings:
1. It would appear that there is some consensus that emissions are higher in tropical climates than temperate or boreal climates.
2. Measured real world emissions appear to be higher than the emission estimates from the forecast in the Environmental Impact Statements for projects.
3. The emissions of both carbon dioxide and to a lesser degree methane vary with time. Emissions are highest immediately after flooding and decay over time. The documented rates of reduction vary significantly.
4. The quantity and quality of the reports studying these emissions is increasing with time. Some of the newest, most detailed reports are finding emissions much higher than earlier studies have found.

Tags: GHGenius 4.03 - Hydroelectricity
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