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 GHGenius 4.01 TagsBio Jet
Biodiesel
Camelina
Electricity
Ethanol
GHGenius 4.01
HRD
Industrial
Jet Fuel
Manual
Natural Gas
Residential
Sugar Cane
 GHGenius Manual 4.01 Vol 2
 Prepared May 2012
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The GHGenius user manual has been updated to version 4.01 of the model. The manual is split into two volumes. Both volumes are organized by sheet in the model.

Volume 1 of the manual documents the structure of the model, the important parameters, and the similarities and differences with the LEM model.

Volume 2 of the manual documents the data and data sources that are used in the model.

The manual is a work in progress. It is the intention to continually update the manual as new versions of the model are released.


Tags: GHGenius 4.01 - Manual
 GHGenius Manual 4.01 Vol 1
 Prepared May 2012
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The GHGenius user manual has been updated to version 4.01 of the model. The manual is split into two volumes. Both volumes are organized by sheet in the model.

Volume 1 of the manual documents the structure of the model, the important parameters, and the similarities and differences with the LEM model.

Volume 2 of the manual documents the data and data sources that are used in the model.

The manual is a work in progress. It is the intention to continually update the manual as new versions of the model are released.


Tags: GHGenius 4.01 - Manual
 Natural Gas Update Report
 Prepared May 2012
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This report documents changes made to the complete natural gas lifecycle emissions. It includes all of the information that is also included in the NG Downstream Report. The tasks that this report covers includes:

Task 1: Update Conventional Natural Gas Production and Energy Data

The existing data for conventional natural gas in the GHGenius model has been updated. This included removing the relative factors used to convert U.S. gas production energy requirements to Canadian emissions and replacing them with actual Canadian conventional gas production energy and emissions data. This results in having separate Canadian and U.S. data sets allowing for more robustness.
The natural gas processing emissions have also been updated. This includes a more robust treatment of the emissions of CO2 from the raw gas so that a proper sensitivity analysis of this parameter can be undertaken.

Task 2: Update Unconventional Natural Gas Production and Energy Data

We have updated, where possible, the existing data for unconventional natural gas pathways, including coalbed methane and tight gas, but excluded shale, as one of the recent projects covered this pathway specifically. The shale gas information has been included in the report and the model so that all of the documentation is together in one document.

Task 3: Lifecycle Analysis of Conventional and Unconventional Natural Gas Pathways

Based on the new data provided to the model, we have used GHGenius to obtain carbon intensity results for Canadian conventional and unconventional natural gas pathways, including shale, coalbed methane, and tight gas. The carbon intensity results illustrate the intensities for each of the following processing stages:
1) Natural Gas Production: This stage includes emissions from the extraction and processing of natural gas. More specifically, this stage includes emissions resulting from well exploration, well drilling, well completion, and acid gas removal.
2) Transportation: This stage includes emissions to compress the NG to transport it through the main pipeline network.
3) Distribution and storage: Includes emissions for distributing the NG from the main transmission pipelines to end users.
4) End Use
Emissions due to gas leaks and flares are captured under a separate category in GHGenius (called gas leaks and flares). This includes methane losses. In the report, these emissions are appropriately disaggregated to the life cycle stages listed above so that one can observe which stage contributes most to leaks and flares.
The functional unit is a GJ of feedstock delivered to the end user. IPCC 2007 global warming factors for a 100-year time horizon have been used. Different Canadian regions have been studied.

Task 4: Sensitivity Analysis

We have performed a sensitivity analysis on unconventional natural gas parameters such as CO2 content in formation gas, overall methane leakage from the system, pipeline distances and investigated the impact of gas production rate, venting and flaring rates at the well.


Tags: GHGenius 4.01 - Natural Gas
 Downstream Natural Gas Update
 Prepared May 2012
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GHGenius has traditionally been focussed on the emissions from the transportation sector but the model is capable of reporting emissions for all sectors of the economy. One aspect of this work was to make it easier for the model to be used for modelling emissions in these other sectors. The scope of this work included the following:

1. An update of natural gas pipeline emissions including both transmission and distribution, including their fugitive emissions. Some data was supplied by the CGA as part of this work and other data sources were also sourced. The transmission energy use and emissions have also been regionalized as part of this work.

2. A re-organizing of the GHGenius tool to model lifecycle emissions from using natural gas in a host of applications including vehicles, power generation, home heating, and industrial applications and to compare these emissions to other fuels. The model update includes a new user interface sheet that will allow the user to more intuitively select the fuel pathways they wish to compare, and it will allow for easy comparison of selected fuels and end uses. The rest of the GHGenius model operates separately from this sheet.

3. The new user selection sheet allows the user to select different fuels, the province (or region) in which the fuels are used, and the end use of the fuel. More advanced parameters will still be able to be changed elsewhere in the model. On the same sheet, a simplified set of results will be output. They will include, as appropriate, gCO2e/km, gCO2e/tonne steam, gCO2e/kWr, and percent comparisons.

In addition some changes have been made to the model to provide additional flexibility and allow more representative regionalization of the model. At the same time as this work was undertaken, the complete natural gas pathway in the model (including the gas production and processing stages) was comprehensively evaluated and changes made to better reflect the current data that is available. These changes are documented in a separate report. Data updates have been made to both the Canadian and US data in the model.


Tags: Electricity - GHGenius 4.01 - Industrial - Natural Gas - Residential
 Sugar Cane Ethanol Update
 Prepared May 2012
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This pathway in GHGenius was added to the model in 2006. Sugarcane production systems in Brazil have undergone significant change since that time with the introduction of mechanical cane harvesting, the continued evolution of the sugar and ethanol mills, and the development of a more significant co-generation capacity in the industry as a result of changing government policies.

There is also much more data available on the industry as a result of a significant effort by the Brazilian industry to document their activities and the inclusion of this pathway in the US RFS2 program and in the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard program. There is information available for both manual and mechanical harvesting. This update includes the option to allow the user to choose which harvesting approach to use for modelling. The user can specify how much of the feedstock is harvested manually and how much is done mechanically and the button installs the appropriate defaults throughout the model.

Where possible, the data in the model has been converted to the time series approach that has been used in recent updates to the model. This provides greater certainty for the input data as it effectively deals with year to year variations due to weather.

Particular attention has been paid to soil emissions and fugitive emissions from the vinasse disposal systems. These two issues were identified as areas of uncertainty and ongoing research in Brazil.

The version of the model that accompanies this report is GHGenius 4.01. Several other changes to the model were carried out at the same time but these have their own reports. The sugarcane ethanol system is shown in the following figure.

Tags: Ethanol - GHGenius 4.01 - Sugar Cane
 BioJet and Camelina
 Prepared May 2012
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This work had several components in it.

Reference pathways for fossil jet fuels have been added to the model. Two pathways are included, one a typical current aviation fuel with sulphur contents in the range of 500 to 1,000 ppm, and the second an ultra low sulphur with levels below 10 ppm. The low sulphur fuel may be required in the future and it may be a better comparison for the BioJet that typically has low or no sulphur. The focus of the work will be on the upstream emissions.

The processing energy requirements (and thus the GHG emissions) for BioJet processes appear to be slightly more severe than the requirements for HRD processes. Therefore an HRJ (hydrotreated renewable jet) fuel pathway has been added to the model. Similarly to the HRD pathway one pathway is depicted in the model and the user will choose the feedstock to be used.

Camelina as a biodiesel, HRD, and HRJ feedstock has been added to the model. The interest in Camelina as a biofuel feedstock is increasing. There are a number of producers in Canada interested in this feedstock.

A list of other oilseeds that are not in GHGenius that have been discussed as potential biodiesel feedstocks has been prepared. For each of these a short description of the feedstock, its benefits, and drawbacks is provided.
We have investigated the state of knowledge of the emissions from the use of aviation fuels.

We have also added the potential to use BTL fuels in the aviation sector. These fuels were already in the model for road use, so they have been included as a third option in the aviation fuel use output tables in the model.


Tags: Bio Jet - Biodiesel - Camelina - GHGenius 4.01 - HRD - Jet Fuel
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