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New information has been supplied to Natural Resources Canada by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) on the energy and materials consumed during the well drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and production stages. Additional information has recently been released by the US EPA, although that was focussed on updating their National Inventory Report and not on LCA work.
This work has reviewed the data supplied, compared the results between companies and reached some conclusions with respect to the data that has been made available.
To properly model shale gas the structure of the natural gas sheet in GHGenius needed to be changed to have more emphasis on the well drilling emissions. This new structure has been developed and integrated into the model.
The revised model has been used to compare the GHG emissions for shale gas with other types of gas in the model.
Tags: GHGenius 4.00 - Shale Gas
L'Association canadienne des producteurs pétroliers (ACPP) a fourni à Ressources naturelles Canada de l'information récente sur l'énergie et les matières consommées durant les étapes de forage du puits, de fracturation hydraulique et de production. En outre, l'Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) des États-Unis a récemment publié des données additionnelles, bien qu'il s'agisse plutôt d'une mise à jour de leur National Inventory Report et non d'une analyse du cycle de vie.
Pour le présent travail, nous avons effectué une revue des données fournies et une comparaison des résultats entre les entreprises, et formulé certaines conclusions en ce qui a trait aux données rendues publiques.
Pour modéliser adéquatement le gaz de schiste, il fallait modifier la structure de la feuille de calcul du gaz naturel dans GHGenius afin de mieux prendre en compte les émissions associées au forage des puits. Cette nouvelle structure a été développée et intégrée dans le modèle.
Le modèle révisé a été utilisé pour comparer les émissions de GES associées au gaz de schiste avec celles des autres types de gaz dans le modèle.
Tags: GHGenius 4.00 - Shale Gas
· Acetic acid
· Ammonium sulphate
· Citric acid
· Hydrochloric acid
· Magnesium silicate
· Nitric acid
· Phosphoric acid
· Potassium hydroxide
· Sodium methylate
One additional change to this section of the model has been made. In some processes there is a significant amount of electricity that is used for some of the chemical inputs and the model had used generic power for the calculation of emissions for these chemicals. This meant that the chemical GHG emissions were dependent on the location where they were used and not necessarily where they were produced. This has been changed so that the user can choose between using the average Canada power, the average US power or the regional generic power for the chemical production.
The second task has been to expand the treatment of co-products in the model. Over the years, the co-products have been added on a when required basis for each new pathway. This has resulted in a somewhat inconsistent treatment of the calculation methodology. A more structured approach to calculating the energy and emissions that are displaced by the co-products has been adopted, more like the approach used on the Alt Fuel Prod sheet for the input chemicals. This should make it easier to add new co-products in the future as bio-refineries develop.
Some additional co-products, or co-product uses have been added. Some biodiesel plants are using glycerine as an animal feed, or as a source of fuel. Others are using it as a feedstock for propylene glycol production.
Some LCA models use alternate co-product allocation methods other than system expansion/displacement such as mass or energy allocation. The functionality of GHGenius has been expanded to allow the user to choose between displacement (default), mass, or energy allocation.
The third part of the update has been to re-organize some sheets. As the model developed and new pathways or functions were added, the layout of some of the sheets becomes compromised and less than ideal. Many of these compromises have been addressed.
Tags: Co-products - GHGenius 4.00