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 GHGenius 3.20 TagsAg Residues
Crude Oil
Electricity
GHGenius 3.20
PyrolysisOils
Refining
Wood
 Oil Refining Update
 April 2011
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The GHG emissions related to the production and use of petroleum fuels are very important, as these fuels are used in most fuel production pathways and, for all alternative fuels, gasoline or diesel fuel represents the reference fuel to which the alternative fuel is compared.

This GHGenius update has involved an in depth review of the emissions associated with oil refining and oil production in Canada. This included some structural changes to the model and the inclusion of more real world data and fewer assumptions. The oil refining section of the model now has time series of data for energy consumption in Canadian oil refineries, a revised and improved method for calculating the allocation of the emissions between products, and increased flexibility for modelling a specific refinery. It also has revised factors for estimating the emissions when the crude oil properties are changed.

The model results, in most cases, are aligned with the reported GHG emissions from refineries. The CAC emission factors for CO, SOx and NOx have also been adjusted to better match the reported emissions. The previous factors were based on early sector wide emissions and, now that these emissions are reported annually, clearer trends have emerged.

This new version of GHGenius provides the capacity for refiners to model individual refineries relatively easily. The cells where users could input their own data are clearly distinguished and it is no longer necessary to override any of the data or calculations in GHGenius to model a specific refinery. Most of the other LCA models don’t have this capability.

The model also allows refiners to change the refined products slate when they change the crude oil charged. Combined with the new allocation system, this will calculate any benefits that different crude oils may provide in terms of more of the high intensity products produced at the expense of the low value, low allocation, heavy products.


Tags: Crude Oil - GHGenius 3.20 - Refining
 Oil Production Update
 April 2011
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As more focus is placed on different industrial processes, more data on those systems becomes available. The crude oil systems in GHGenius have been updated several times but the most recent update was two years ago and more data is now available. It was therefore appropriate to undertake a thorough review and update of the crude oil pathways in GHGenius. The scope of this work is discussed below.

1. International Crude Oil Supply to Canada
About 50% of the crude oil that is refined in Canada is imported. The quantity of crude oil and its destination is reported by Statistics Canada and a time series of data has been produced for each of the regions in the model from 1985 to the present time. This data has been added to the model (sheet Z) and used as the basis for future projections.

2. Energy Requirements International Crude Production
The energy required to produce international crude oils has been essentially static in GHGenius (sheet S). A time series of data is produced by the International Oil and Gas Producers Association. It covers about one third of the world’s crude oil production. Data is available from 2001 to 2009. This data has been analyzed to establish some trends for the model.

3. Canadian Crude Oil Production Trends
GHGenius does not currently have total crude oil production data for Canada. The model has focussed on the crude oils that are refined in Canada. Since there is some interest in the emissions impact of crude oils that are exported from Canada this data has been added to the model.

4. Energy Requirements for Canadian Crude Oils
The energy requirements for producing conventional Canadian crude oil have been reported by CAPP and that data has been used in GHGenius. It has been reviewed and newer sources of information have been sought.

A time series of data on mineable oil sands statistics has been found that is produced by Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). It includes complete mass and energy balance information for all operating mineable projects. The data has been reviewed and incorporated into the model.

Data on in-situ oil production is starting to be reported by ERCB and the data for 2009 and 2010 has been used for the model.

Another stage in the lifecycle has been added to the model to differentiate the emissions from bitumen production and bitumen upgrading. This has been done on sheet I, the Energy Balance sheet, and the Upstream Emission sheets (HHV and LHV).

5. Venting and Flaring Emissions Canadian Crude Oils
The venting and flaring data for Canadian crude oil production was updated in 2004. At that time there had been a concerted effort by the industry to reduce these emissions and some success was evident from the data. A projection of future improvements was made based on the trends. More recent data provided by Alberta Energy suggests that the annual improvements ceased about 2006, so this issue has been re-evaluated in the model.

6. Carbon Capture and Storage
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one GHG emission reduction strategy that is potentially applicable to emission sources. Bitumen upgrading and synthetic oil production are two potential applications of this technology. The carbon capture and storage technology can also be applied in the refineries and GHGenius has had the capacity to model CCS for these sectors for some time. This function in the model is reviewed, updated, and documented.

7. Co-generation of Power and Steam
Some oil sands upgraders produce their own power and export some back to the grid. This can be handled in GHGenius through the use of a negative consumption of electricity but this does not provide any flexibility in how it is modelled. In other systems that produce electricity as a co-product the model provides full flexibility, this allows the modeller to choose what power source is being displaced; this approach has been extended to upgrader operations.

8. Refinery Energy Use
The energy use data for refineries in GHGenius had been based on 2002 data and significant changes in the industry have taken place since then, such as the introduction of low sulphur gasoline and ultra low sulphur diesel fuel. This work has tried to develop consistent regional data sets, and time series of data, which can be used in the GHGenius model.

A literature review has been undertaken on changes in refining energy requirements with changes in crude density and sulphur content and changes in the way that the model deals with these issues has been made.

9. Refinery Energy Use Allocation
The other important parameter related to refineries is the allocation of emissions between products. The current allocation process has been reviewed and significant changes have been made to make the process more functional.


Tags: Crude Oil - GHGenius 3.20 - Refining
 US Update
 April 2011
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The report covers work on the regionalization of the US fuel production pathways and the updating of the basic data that covers US electric power production, US natural gas production and flows, US crude oil production and flows, and the US petroleum refining sector. The revised model resulting from this work has more functionality for modelling various scenarios in the US and more up to date data on the traditional US energy sector.

This report has been prepared to document the changes that have been made to GHGenius in terms of updating US data and the regionalization of some of that data. The version of the model that accompanies this report is GHGenius 3.20.

This work added US regional buttons to the Input sheet, these install regional values much like the Canadian regional and Provincial buttons. This makes it much easier to run US regional scenarios.


Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - GHGenius 3.20 - Refining
 Pyrolysis Oils
 March 2011
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There is increased interest in the production and use of pyrolysis oils (or bio-oil) as a means of converting solid biomass into liquid fuels. While pyrolysis oil is not suitable for direct use as a transportation fuel, it can be used in external combustion devices such as boilers, heaters, and turbines. There are also activities underway to refine pyrolysis oil to gasoline and diesel fuel components.

The scope of this work included;
1. Pyrolysis oil production from wood or agricultural cellulosic feedstocks. Both of these feedstock families were already included in GHGenius. There are three wood options: wood waste, short rotation forestry, and harvested wood from natural forests. There are four agricultural cellulosic feedstocks in the model: wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, and hay. The model has been expanded so that pyrolysis oil can be made from any of these feedstocks. The emissions from the production of these bio-oils have been added to the Upstream Results sheet.
2. The produced pyrolysis oil could be used in external combustion devices such as heaters and boilers (sheet AD and sheet N). Sheet J has also been expanded so that the emissions from the production of electricity in a turbine system can be modelled.
3. A pathway that refines the pyrolysis oils to blending stock for gasoline and diesel fuel has also been added to the model.

All of the existing functionality, e.g. sensitivity solver, Monte Carlo tool, etc, in GHGenius has been maintained. The version of GHGenius that accompanies this report is GHGenius version 3.20.


Tags: Ag Residues - GHGenius 3.20 - PyrolysisOils - Wood
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