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 Fuel Cell TagsCoal
Crude Oil
Fischer Tropsch
Fuel Cell
GHGenius 2.3
Gasoline
Hydrogen
Hydrogen Transportation
Hythane
Methanol
Natural Gas
Nuclear Thermo Cracking
 Hydrogen Pathways, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and En
 Prepared for Fuel Cells Canada and Natural Resources Canada in December 2003
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Fifty pathways for transportation fuels are evaluated for their lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. Forty-five of those involve hydrogen. Thirty-six pathways have been investigated for their energy use and thirty-one of those involve hydrogen. The hydrogen pathways that are studied include the following components:
  • Feedstocks. The following feedstocks can be converted to hydrogen: coal, crude oil, natural gas, biomass, nuclear energy, and hydropower (can also be used as a proxy for wind and solar).
  • Intermediate Products. In addition to the direct production of hydrogen, some of the feedstocks mentioned above can produce various intermediate energy carriers that can be used for the eventual production of hydrogen; these include methanol, electricity, ethanol, LPG, FT Distillate, and gasoline.
  • Distribution. Hydrogen can be produced on site or it can be produced at a central facility. The distribution from a central facility can be as a liquid or a compressed gas. The compressed gas can be distributed by pipeline or by truck. Liquid hydrogen can be distributed by truck or rail. Some of the pathways will only be feasible with large central facilities that require hydrogen distribution while others could be small decentralized systems or large central systems. The impacts of the distribution system on the results are discussed and the most likely option for each pathway can be modeled.
  • Utilization. The hydrogen could be used in an internal combustion engine or in a fuel cell. The data in GHGenius for the hydrogen ICE has been reviewed with a literature search to ensure that it is consistent with the latest developments in this area.


Tags: Coal - Crude Oil - Fuel Cell - GHGenius 2.3 - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Transportation - Natural Gas
 Off Board Generation of Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Veh
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in August 2002
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The purpose of this work was to add fuel cycles to GHGenius that may be demonstrated in the Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance demonstrations and allow an assessment of the projected greenhouse gas benefits before the projects are funded by the CTFCA.
The GHGenius model has been successfully updated with additional hydrogen production and hydrogen utilization pathways. The following hydrogen production pathways have been added:
  • Off board reforming of methanol
  • Off board reforming of ethanol
  • Off board reforming of gasoline
  • Off board reforming of FT Distillate
  • Off board reforming of LPG
  • The use of nuclear energy to produce hydrogen through thermal cracking

In addition, the use of mixtures of natural gas and hydrogen (Hythane®) in both light duty spark ignited engines and in heavy-duty natural gas engines have been added to the model. The hydrogen for these mixtures can be produced either from SMR or from electrolysis.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Fuel Cell - Gasoline - Hydrogen - Hythane - Natural Gas - Nuclear Thermo Cracking
 GHG Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles
 Prepared for Methanex Corporation in June 2000
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The primary intent of this report is to cover most of the fuels currently being considered for FCV and to determine the GHG emissions in the Canadian context. GHGenius was used to calculate GHG’s and is capable of calculating emissions in Canada and the United States so the results for the United States are also presented. There is some discussion of the likely results in Japan and Europe based on the carbon intensity of their electricity generating sectors.

Tags: Fischer Tropsch - Fuel Cell - Hydrogen - Methanol - Natural Gas
(S&T)2 Consultants Inc. 2004 Important Notices