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 Exhaust Emissions TagsButanol
Corn
Crude Oil
Electricity
Ethanol
Exhaust Emissions
GHGenius 2.5
GHGenius 3.7
Lignocellulosic
Refining
Urea
 Bio-Butanol and a Review of Urea SCR
 Prepared February 2007
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Butanol or “Bio-Butanol” as it is sometimes referred to has recently been proposed as a gasoline additive used either with ethanol or instead of ethanol in low level gasoline blends. Butanol has a lower vapour pressure and a lower ability to absorb water when blend with gasoline and some proponents suggest that these two properties would reduce the implementation costs of low level alcohol blends by allowing the butanol to be blended with gasoline at refineries and pipelined to distribution terminals.

One butanol pathway has been added to GHGenius. A corn to butanol pathway for gasoline blends is the most appropriate pathway to consider for North America applications. This corn to butanol pathway is fully functional including summary information and cost effectiveness calculations. Additional co-products have been added to the model including acetone.

Reduction of diesel NOx emissions is difficult due to the presence of oxygen in the exhaust. In the oxidizing environment of lean exhaust, fuel has proven to be only a marginally effective reducing agent. Urea SCR systems utilize aqueous urea as a means of introducing ammonia as the NOx reduction catalyst. These systems have been shown to be less sulphur sensitive than NOx adsorbers are. The latest information on this issue has been reviewed and the new findings have been incorporated into GHGenius.

Tags: Butanol - Corn - Exhaust Emissions - GHGenius 3.7 - Urea
 Light Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Update
 Prepared December 2004
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GHGenius projects the average emissions for a single model year vehicle over its lifetime. The primary emissions model (MOBILE) used for projecting exhaust emissions of vehicles projects the emissions in a single year of the fleet of vehicles. The two models therefore look at the emissions issue from different perspectives. There is a relationship between the two approaches and GHGenius can use the raw data from MOBILE as the basis for its emission projections.

The emissions of the criteria air contaminants from light duty vehicles in GHGenius were originally calculated using an algorithm that was based on the US EPA MOBILE5 emissions model. In 2001, the EPA replaced this model with a new model called MOBILE6. The light duty emissions in GHGenius were updated in 2001 when early versions of MOBILE6 first became available. This model has now been superseded by MOBILE6.2 in the United States. Environment Canada has a similar model called MOBILE6.2C, which has some Canadian data in it. The updated emissions models not only have a better understanding of on-road emissions, they incorporate the known future changes in emissions regulations into their projections for emissions.

Emissions forecasts from light duty onroad vehicles were calculated using the MOBILE6.2C emission factor model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and subsequently adapted to Canadian vehicles by Environment Canada. This is the most current model available for calculating in-use emissions from light and heavy duty motor vehicles and takes into account:
· the year of evaluation and the model year and applicable emission standards for vehicles in a fleet,
· effects of key fuel quality parameters on emissions, i.e., fuel sulphur content for diesel fuel and gasoline, and vapour pressure and general chemical composition for gasoline,
· climatic conditions, such as ambient temperature,
· results of a large body of work done to quantify emissions from light and heavy motor vehicles, such as US federal test procedure emission tests, off-cycle emission tests and in-use emission tests,
· effects on emissions of vehicle duty cycles and operation on different types of roads (freeway, freeway ramp, arterial and local roads).
MOBILE is typically run for large fleets in a single year, rather than a single vehicle over its lifetime, like in the GHGenius model. A database of MOBILE6.2C results was obtained that contained output data for a single model year every three years from 1987 to 2017. Additional years were run to fill in data when there were large changes in the emissions over the three year period. The results were analyzed for light duty gasoline vehicles, light duty diesel vehicles and natural gas powered light duty vehicles.

These results from MOBILE 6.2C were then programmed into GHGenius.

Tags: Exhaust Emissions
 Update of GHGenius
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in March 2004
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As part of this work, there have been several changes to the model. The version of the model that accompanies this report is GHGenius 2.5. A number of revisions and updates to the model were undertaken. The revisions generally have either improved the quality of Canadian data in the model or added functionality that makes the model more powerful for the user. In addition, two new cycles, based on processes developed by NRCan have been added to the model. These new cycles are the subject of a separate report. The objectives of the model updates were to:
  • Allow selection of ethanol cellulosic feedstock from the input sheet. Ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks could be produced from a variety of feedstocks including wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, and hay.
  • Improve the quality and functionality of the emissions from crude oil production and refining in Canada. The model has been modified to use four different crude oil types, conventional, heavy, bitumen and synthetic.
  • Harmonize the methodology for the production of hydrogen from electrolysis with other methods.
  • Review and update the Canadian electricity mix.
  • Update the emissions of criteria air contaminants from heavy-duty diesel engines on Sheet H in light of the new emission standards being phased in this decade.
  • The latest LEM model by Dr. Mark Delucchi made many changes to sheet L that calculates emissions associated with materials. The documentation that describes the changes to determine the best data to use for GHGenius with particular attention to the data for Canada has been reviewed and the appropriate changes have been made to GHGenius.


Tags: Crude Oil - Electricity - Ethanol - Exhaust Emissions - GHGenius 2.5 - Lignocellulosic - Refining
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