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· Ethanol via biochemical processes using agricultural residues.
· Ethanol via thermochemical process using woody biomass.
· Gasoline via thermochemical process using woody biomass.
· FT Distillate via thermochemical process using woody biomass.
· Gasoline and Diesel fuel via pyrolysis.
Additional information has been found for the wood to DME process and this information is used to update this pathway in GHGenius. All of these pathways are already in GHGenius, having been added over the years. This work updates the default values in the GHGenius model and uses the updated data to model and report on the energy balances and GHG emissions of the pathways. This includes undertaking sensitivity analysis on the important variables.
In GHGenius there are multiple sub-pathways for some of these fuel systems, for example there are four agricultural feedstocks and a wood feedstock for the biochemical route and the pyrolysis pathway has woody biomass feedstock and agricultural residues. We have developed consistent inputs for all of these sub-pathways based on the NREL data, whereas they only provide data for one feedstock.
There are process developers that have hybrid systems, those that use both biochemical and thermochemical process to convert biomass to transportation fuels. These can also be modelled in GHGenius by adapting one of the existing pathways. Two examples of this are presented, but the inputs required for these systems are not included as default values in the model.
The results are presented for Canada for the year 2012 using the IPCC 2007 GWPs, unless otherwise stated. The version of GHGenius that accompanies this report is version 4.02. This version also has some updates to the electric and fuel cell vehicle pathways, which are described in a separate report. The GHGenius manuals have also been updated with the information used in this report.
Tags: DME - Ethanol - Feedstock - Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 4.02 - PyrolysisOils - Wheat Straw - Wood
The interest in biofuels continues to grow and technology developers are considering the opportunities of producing fuels, other than ethanol and biodiesel, which can be used in either blends with petroleum fuels, or as replacements for petroleum fuels. It is important that an understanding of the environmental implications of these technologies be understood before the fuels are introduced to the marketplace. This work helps to address that need by expanding GHGenius to consider two new biomass to fuel processes.
Bio-gasoline can be produced in a multistep process to gasify wood, convert the syngas to methanol or DME and then convert the methanol or DME to gasoline. The back end of the process is similar to the natural gas to methanol to gasoline process that was operated commercially in New Zealand in the 1990s by Mobil.
Bio-DME can also be produced through a similar route except without the last step of converting the DME to gasoline. DME has interesting fuel properties, including a high cetane number, and no carbon carbon bonds. It thus has potential as a replacement diesel fuel as well as a potential hydrogen carrier.
Wood feedstock in GHGenius has been represented by short rotation forestry (SRF) or by wood residues. A switch on the input sheet has been used to choose which feedstock is active in the model. There has been increased interest in harvesting timber for energy applications rather than for fibre so this third option has been added to the model. This option is now active for all of the wood to energy pathways in the model, not just the two that have been added here.
The new version of the model that accompanies this report is version 3.18.
Tags: DME - GHGenius 3.18 - Gasoline - Wood