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 Coal TagsBiodiesel
Coal
Crude Oil
Ethanol
Fischer Tropsch
Fuel Cell
GHGenius 2.3
GHGenius 3.4
GHGenius 3.6
Hydrogen
Hydrogen Transportation
Lignocellulosic
Natural Gas
Palm
Wood
 Wood Ethanol Report
 Prepared November 2006
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- For wood to ethanol the process data is sparse but there is one complete set of mass and energy balance data that was developed by the US DOE several years ago that will be used as the base. This input data was also discussed with researchers at UBC who have been active in this field for many years although they have focussed on individual steps in the process rather than on the overall process. We have also reviewed the process emissions on sheet N in the model for all of the biological ethanol pathways and separated the inputs for wood, ag residues, corn and wheat ethanol.

- For wood to natural gas there is some work underway in Europe investigating and demonstrating at the pilot level the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. Some preliminary data is available. This data has been reviewed and the model has been updated to reflect recent advances.

- There is some interest in producing pipeline quality gas from coal in Canada. There is one commercial pant in the United States (Dakota Gasification) and the literature surrounding that plant has been reviewed, along with new process developments in the field, to develop the basis for a new pathway in the model. This pathway is similar to the wood to natural gas pathway and the use of the gas will include light and heavy-duty vehicles.

Tags: Coal - Ethanol - GHGenius 3.6 - Lignocellulosic - Natural Gas - Wood
 FTD From Coal and Palm Oil Biodiesel Report
 Prepared May 2006
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Due to high oil prices and the availability of stranded gas there is increased worldwide interest in FT distillate fuels. In regions of the world, such as North America, where gas prices are higher but there are substantial reserves of coal, high oil prices and interest in FT distillate is causing an interest in coal to FT distillate processes such as is practiced in South Africa. The coal to FT distillate pathway has been added to the model. It has been added to all of the results sheets. As part of this work the FT fuels for the light duty diesel applications have been added to GHGenius as well.

Palm oil is the lowest cost vegetable oil feedstock produced in the world today. It is increasingly being considered as a feedstock for biodiesel production, not only in the regions of the world where it is produced but also in Europe and North America. The environmental benefits of palm oil are also somewhat controversial with claims regarding cultivation practices being both pro and con palm oil as a sustainable feedstock source.

The production of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel has been added to the model. The biodiesel can be used as a neat fuel and in blends in heavy-duty vehicles and in blends in light duty vehicles. All of the pathways have been added to all of the results sheets in the model including the summary sheets and the cost sheets. Palm oil biodiesel can now be compared to biodiesel produced from other oil sources within the same model.

Tags: Biodiesel - Coal - Fischer Tropsch - GHGenius 3.4 - Palm
 Hydrogen Pathways, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and En
 Prepared for Fuel Cells Canada and Natural Resources Canada in December 2003
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Fifty pathways for transportation fuels are evaluated for their lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. Forty-five of those involve hydrogen. Thirty-six pathways have been investigated for their energy use and thirty-one of those involve hydrogen. The hydrogen pathways that are studied include the following components:
  • Feedstocks. The following feedstocks can be converted to hydrogen: coal, crude oil, natural gas, biomass, nuclear energy, and hydropower (can also be used as a proxy for wind and solar).
  • Intermediate Products. In addition to the direct production of hydrogen, some of the feedstocks mentioned above can produce various intermediate energy carriers that can be used for the eventual production of hydrogen; these include methanol, electricity, ethanol, LPG, FT Distillate, and gasoline.
  • Distribution. Hydrogen can be produced on site or it can be produced at a central facility. The distribution from a central facility can be as a liquid or a compressed gas. The compressed gas can be distributed by pipeline or by truck. Liquid hydrogen can be distributed by truck or rail. Some of the pathways will only be feasible with large central facilities that require hydrogen distribution while others could be small decentralized systems or large central systems. The impacts of the distribution system on the results are discussed and the most likely option for each pathway can be modeled.
  • Utilization. The hydrogen could be used in an internal combustion engine or in a fuel cell. The data in GHGenius for the hydrogen ICE has been reviewed with a literature search to ensure that it is consistent with the latest developments in this area.


Tags: Coal - Crude Oil - Fuel Cell - GHGenius 2.3 - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Transportation - Natural Gas
 Coal and Biomass to Hydrogen
 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada in August 2003
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The goal of this work was to add two new hydrogen pathways, coal to hydrogen and biomass to hydrogen. The new pathways are fully integrated into GHGenius, for each fuel cycle the fuel will be used for both light duty and heavy duty applications fuel cell applications. All of the existing functionality of the model has be retained.
Both of these new pathways are likely to involve large individual plants. The hydrogen will be transported from these plants to the locations where it will be dispensed. Previous versions of GHGenius handled the transportation of hydrogen in different and less robust ways than the distribution of other fuels. This has been changed in this new version of GHGenius. The user now has much greater flexibility to model the way that hydrogen is distributed.

Tags: Coal - GHGenius 2.3 - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Transportation - Wood
(S&T)2 Consultants Inc. 2004 Important Notices