The Danish Energy Agency has developed an LCA model for transportation fuels. This model includes all modes of transportation, cars, trucks, buses, trains, planes, and ships. It also includes a significant number of conventional and alternative fuels pathways. (S&T)2 developed the portion of the model that calculated the emissions associated with the materials in the vehicles, vessels, rail cars, and airplanes.
(S&T)2 developed a bill of materials for each of the modes of transport. Information on cars, trucks, buses, trains, ships, and planes was obtained. To the degree possible European data for the bill of materials has been used.
All of the required materials that have been identified in the bill of materials (approximately 30 materials) were added to the model. The total energy and the breakdown of the types of energy are required for each material. GREET and GHGenius basically have 4 energy types, power, coal, petroleum, and natural gas. This model has 12 energy types and has the capacity to add eight more. The materials page can potentially use all 20 types of energy that could be included in the model.
The lifetime energy consumption for each transportation mode was estimated and included so that the emissions can be reported on a GJ of fuel or per kilometre basis for comparison to the other stages of the lifecycle.